Herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, or trees, annual or perennial, branching usually divaricate, growth sympodial, nodes angled or swollen, evergreen [deciduous], synoecious [dioecious]. Leaves opposite or fascicled [alternate or on short lateral branches], palmately or even- [odd-]pinnately compound [simple]; stipules present; petiole present [absent]; blade often fleshy or coriaceous, margins entire; venation pinnate. Inflorescences pseudoaxillary [terminal], flowers solitary or in 2-flowered clusters [cymes]. Flowers bisexual [unisexual], usually regular, sometimes slightly irregular; perianth and androecium hypogynous; hypanthium absent; sepals 4–5, usually distinct, rarely connate basally; petals 4–5, distinct [rarely connate basally], often clawed, sometimes twisted; nectary usually present, extrastaminal and/or intrastaminal, rarely absent; stamens [5–](8–)10 in 2 whorls, outer usually opposite petals, often alternately unequal in length or sterile, distinct, free or adnate to petal bases, inserted on or proximal to nectary, frequently glandular or appendaged at base; anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits; pistil 1, (2–)5-carpellate, ovary superior, (2–)5–10-locular; placentation axile [basal]; ovules (1–)2–10 per locule, anatropous; style 1; stigma 1. Fruits capsules, dehiscence septicidal or loculicidal, or schizocarps splitting into 5 or 10 mericarps. Seeds 1–5(–10) per locule.
Shrubs, shrublets, or perennial herbs, rarely annuals. Stipules distinct or connate, often persistent. Leaves opposite or sometimes alternate, simple or pinnate, often fleshy. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, solitary, racemose, or cymose. Flower bisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic. Sepals 4 or 5, imbricate or valvate. Petals 4 or 5, imbricate or valvate. Stamens 4 or 5 or up to 3 × as many as petals, with or without appendages. Ovary usually (2 or)3-5(-12)-locular. Fruit a drupe, capsule, or schizocarp, leathery or fragile.
Seeds mostly with some endosperm; embryo as long as the seed, straight or slightly curved
Stamens the same number to three times the number of the petals, often unequal in length; filaments free, often with a scale inside; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
Ovary superior, sessile or rarely stipitate, usually 4–5-celled; cells rarely transversely locellate; style simple, short, or stigmas sessile; ovules 2 or more in each cell, axile
Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic or zygomorphic
Leaves opposite or alternate, simple, 2-foliolate or pinnate, rarely 3-foliolate, not gland-dotted; stipules present, persistent, often spinescent
Petals 4–5, rarely absent, hypogynous, free, imbricate or contorted, rarely valvate
Sepals 5, rarely 4, free or rarely connate at the base, imbricate, rarely valvate
Shrubs or herbs woody at the base, rarely trees; branches often jointed at the nodes
Seeds 1 or more in each loculus; embryo straight or curved; endosperm present (often very scanty) or absent
Fruit a capsule or at length breaking up into indehiscent cocci, sometimes winged or provided with tubercles or spines
Annual or perennial herbs (sometimes with a woody base) or shrublets or shrubs, with simple hairs
Flowers solitary or rarely in cymes, actinomorphic, bisexual or rarely unisexual, hypogynous
Sepals (4) 5, free or connate at the very base, persistent or deciduous, usually imbricate
Leaves usually opposite, 2- (rarely 1- or 3-) foliolate or pan-pinnate; leaflets entire
Ovary usually sessile, syncarpous, 4–5-locular with 2 or more pendulous ovules in each loculus; style usually simple, terete or angular or furrowed
Stamens obdiplostemonous, usually twice as many as the petals, with free filaments and 2-thecous introrse anthers
Petals (4) 5, imbricate, rarely contorted or valvate, free, sessile or unguiculate; disk usually present, sometimes provided with extra- and intrastaminal glands
Seed with or without albuminous endosperm; embryo straight or curved
Fruit capsular or fleshy, sometimes splitting into 5 indehiscent mericarps
Ovary on a glandular or annular disc, superior, 4-5-locular, with axile placentation; ovules 2-many on each placenta, pendulous; style 1, sometimes very short, rarely absent; stigma 1, simple, variously shaped
Stamens 1-2 as many as the petals in 1-2 whorls, often unequal, outer ones usually opposite the petals, hypogynous; filaments broadened at the base, free, naked or with basal scales; anthers introrse, 2-thecous
Petals as many as the sepals, free, clawed, twisted in bud
Sepals usually (4-)5, free or rarely basally connate, persistent or deciduous
Leaves opposite, rarely alternate, mostly pinnately compound, occasionally simple; leaflets sessile, opposite, epunctate, generally unequal, flat or fleshy and sometimes terete; stipules 2, persistent, leathery, hairy or spinescent
Flowers solitary, paired or in axillary cymes, bisexual, regular or rarely zygomorphic; peduncle ebracteate
Perennial herbs or shrubs, rarely annuals; branches opposite, often jointed at the nodes
Arbustes'ou herbes parfois ligneuses à la base; stipules persistantes, parfois transformées en épines.'Feuilles'opposées ou alternes, simples ou paripennées, rarement 3-foliolées.'Fleurs'☿, actinomorphes ou zygomorphes; sépales (4)5, libres ou rarement soudés à la base, imbriqués, rarement valvaires; pétales (1)5, rarement absents, libres, imbriqués ou contortés, rarement valvaires; étamines 1 à 3 fois le nombre des pétales, souvent inégales; filets libres, souvent avec une écaille interne; anthères à déhiscence longitudinale; disque généralement présent; ovaire supère, sessile ou rarement stipité, généralement 4-5-loculaire; loges rarement divisées transversalement, à 2 ovules ou plus; style simple, court ou stigmate sessile.'Fruits capsulaires, loculicides ou septicides ou se séparant en méricarpes.\n\t\t\tFamille comprenant environ 25 genres et 100 espèces des régions tropicales ou subtropicales; au Congo belge 1 genre et 1 espèce.
SELECTED REFERENCES Beier, B.-A. et al. 2004. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the subfamily Zygophylloideae (Zygophyllaceae) based on molecular and morphological data. Pl. Syst. Evol. 240: 11–40. Porter, D. M. 1972. The genera of Zygophyllaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 53: 531–552. Porter, D. M. 1974b. Disjunct distributions in the New World Zygophyllaceae. Taxon 23: 339–346. Sheahan, M. C. and M. W. Chase. 1996. A phylogenetic analysis of Zygophyllaceae R. Br. based on morphological, anatomical and rbcL DNA sequence data. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 122: 279–300. Sheahan, M. C. and M. W. Chase. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships within Zygophyllaceae based on DNA sequences of three plastid regions, with special emphasis on Zygophylloideae. Syst. Bot. 25: 371–384.
|Creosote Bush Family|