Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
  • Expos. Fam. Nat. 1: 245. 1805. (Feb-Apr 1805)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000635. Accessed on: 23 Sep 2020'

General Information

Shrubs or trees, sometimes climbing shrubs, rarely herbs. Indumentum of simple, stellate, and/or other complex hairs. Leaves opposite or rarely whorled, without stipules, simple or 3-foliolate, less often palmately [or pinnately] compound. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemose, cymose, spicate, or thyrses. Flowers bisexual or polygamous by abortion, zygomorphic or rarely actinomorphic. Calyx persistent. Corolla 4- or 5- or more lobed; lobes usually spreading, aestivation overlapping. Fertile stamens inserted on corolla tube, alternate with lobes; filaments free; anthers dorsifixed, 1- or 2-locular, dehiscing by longitudinal slits or sometimes a circular pore. Ovary entire or 4-grooved, 2-8-locular; ovules 1 or 2 per locule, erect or pendulous. Style terminal, simple, entire or 2-cleft. Fruit a drupe or indehiscent capsule, sometimes breaking up into nutlets. Seeds (1 or)2-4, endosperm usually absent, seed coat thin; embryo straight, as long as seed; radicle short, inferior.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Herbaceous or woody, often with quadrangular branchlets

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Seeds with straight embryo and scanty or no endosperm

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    Fruit a drupe or berry

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    Style terminal, simple

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    Ovary superior, 2-8-celled, often 4-celled

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    Stamens on the corolla, 4 or rarely 2 or 5; anthers 2-celled, cells often divergent, opening lengthwise

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    Corolla gamopetalous, tubular, 4-5-lobed, lobes imbricate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Flowers hermaphrodite, zygomorphic

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    • 1
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    Calyx 4-5-lobed or toothed, persistent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Leaves usually opposite or whorled, simple or compound; stipules absent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Leaves predominantly opposite, sometimes whorled, rarely alternate, simple or digitately compound, entire, serrate or variously lobed, frequently aromatic; stipules absent Flowers mostly ± irregular and 2-lipped, sometimes almost regular, usually 4–5-merous, usually hermaphrodite in often bracteate panicles, cymes or spikes

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    Calyx tubular or campanulate, lobed or subentire, sometimes 2-lipped

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    Herbs, shrubs, trees or woody climbers (varying from small annual herbs to large forest trees), sometimes thorny

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Disk usually present, sometimes conspicuous

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    Stamens 4, didynamous, rarely 2 or, in a few genera, the same number as the corolla-lobes, inserted in the corolla-tube and alternate with lobes; filaments free; anthers free or connivent, dorsifixed, 2-thecous, the thecae mostly parallel, opening by longitudinal slits, introrse

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Corolla usually with narrow tube and spreading limb, minute to quite large and showy; lobes imbricate in bud

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    Ovary superior, sessile, entire or slightly 4-lobed, 2(–9)-locular, usually soon 4(or more)-locular by development of false septa, with axile or free central (in Avicennia) placentation; ovules 2 in each true locule (2 per carpel), erect or pendulous (in >i>Avicennia); style terminal, simple and entire or shortly 2(rarely 4–5)-lobed

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fruit a drupe, a capsule (infrequent) or dividing at maturity into 2 or 4 nutlets

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    Seeds without or with much reduced endosperm or present and fleshy (in >i>Avicennia); testa membranous

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    Flowers zygomorphic, hermaphrodite, hypogynous, usually with an inconspicuous nectariferous disk, each solitary in the axil of a single bract, sessile or pedicellate

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    Calyx gamosepalous, persistent, campanulate or tubular, 5-lobed or 5-toothed, sometimes expanded or inflated in fruit

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    Corolla gamopetalous, hypocrateriform (with very narrow tube and abruptly spreading limb), funnel-shaped in Verbena, 5-lobed[a1] , often somewhat bilabiate (with a 2-lobed upper lip and 3-lobed lower lip), variously coloured

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    Stamens 4, didynamous, epipetalous; filaments distinct; anthers dorsifixed, dehiscing longitudinally, introrse

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    Gynoecium of 1 pistil, 2-carpellate, though sometimes reduced to one; ovary superior, 2-locular but typically appearing 4-locular due to ovary wall intrusions (false septa), usually slightly to moderately 4-lobed[a2] ; ovules 1 in each apparent locule, usually anatropous, erect, placentation axile with ovules attached to the margin of the false septum (directly to carpel margins, not sub terminal); style 1, terminal; stigma 1, capitate or lobed

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    Fruit a drupe with 2 or 4 pyrenes, or a schizocarp splitting into 2 or 4 nutlets (mericarps), enclosed or subtended by persistent calyx; endosperm absent; embryo straight, oily

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    Leaves simple, opposite or sometimes whorled; lamina entire or serrate to lobed; stipules absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Inflorescence indeterminate, terminal or axillary, lax or condensed, racemose, spicate or capitate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, rarely trees or vines, often aromatic, sometimes armed with prickles and/or spines

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    Stems frequently square in cross section

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     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Verbenaceae
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).