Thymelaeaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 76. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)
  • Daphne Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Thymelaeaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000613. Accessed on: 28 Mar 2020'

General Information

Herbs or shrubs, deciduous or evergreen. Stems flexible; wood usually poorly lignified; bark ring; disc usually present (minute or absent in Thymelaea), surrounding gynoecium; stamens usually diplostemonous; anthers introrse, 4-sporangiate; ovary 1-locular, 1(–5)-carpellate; ovules 1+, pendent, raphe ventral, bitegmic, arillate or carunculate, anatropous or hemianatropous, crassinucellate; style 1, rarely absent, terminal or lateral; stigma capitate, clavate, or punctiform. Fruits capsular or drupaceous, usually fleshy, rarely dry, indehiscent [dehiscent]. Seeds 1[–8], usually with endosperm, testate; cotyledons 2, embryo achlorophyllous.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Shrubs or small trees, rarely herbs, evergreen or deciduous. Bark tough and fibrous. Leaves opposite or alternate, rarely some ternate, estipulate; blade simple, entire, pinnately veined, articulate at base. Plants mostly bisexual, sometimes dioecious. Inflorescences terminal or subterminal, less often axillary, sometimes on brachyblasts, sessile or pedunculate, basically racemose, sometimes capitate, spicate, umbelliform, or fascicled. Flowers usually actinomorphic, bisexual or unisexual (plants then mostly dioecious), bracteate (sometimes bracts forming an involucre) or ebracteate, sessile or pedicellate. Calyx tubular, campanulate, or infundibuliform, usually corollalike, 4- or 5(or 6)-merous, mostly caducous, sometimes circumscissile, or persistent; lobes imbricate. Petals absent or represented by 4-12 scales, inserted at or near throat of calyx tube (Aquilaria). Stamens 2 to many, usually as many as calyx lobes and opposite them or twice as many. Hypognous disk usually present at base of ovary, scalelike, annular or cup-shaped, sometimes absent. Ovary superior, 1- or 2-loculed, sessile or shortly stipitate; ovules solitary in each locule, pendulous, anatropous; style filiform, caducous, sometimes very short or obscure, terminal or eccentric; stigma capitate, globose, subglobose, subclavate, or pyramidal, sometimes papilose. Fruit mostly indehiscent, dry or fleshy, sometimes a loculicidal capsule (Aquilaria). Seeds with or without endosperm, embryo straight.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Trees, shrubs or rarely herbs; leaves opposite or alternate, entire, often small and ericoid; stipules absent

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    Flowers actinomorphic, usually hermaphrodite, sometimes capitulate

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    Calyx tubular, more or less cylindric, sometimes long and slender; lobes 4–5, imbricate

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    Petals present or absent, sometimes very small, mostly inserted at the mouth of the calyx-tube

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    • 1
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    Stamens as many or twice as many as the calyx-lobes, inserted in the calyx-tube; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise

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    Disk hypogynous or absent

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    Ovary superior, 1–2-celled; ovule solitary in each cell, pendulous; style simple; stigma entire

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    Fruit a nut, drupe or pyrene, usually enclosed in the base of the calyx-tube

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    Seeds with or without endosperm; embryo straight

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    Fruit often a berry, sometimes a nut, drupe or loculicidal capsule, usually enclosed in the base of the persistent calyx-tube

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    Seed usually with a caruncle-like appendage, outer coat thin or crustaceous, usually black, with or without endosperm; embryo straight; cotyledons flat or thickened, narrow or broad

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    Ovary superior, 1–2(rarely 4–12)-locular, sessile or shortly stipitate; ovule 1 in each locule, usually pendulous, anatropous; style filiform, sometimes very short, terminal or lateral; stigma usually capitate, sometimes papillate

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    Disc hypogynous, membranous or fleshy, annular, cupular or scale-like, sometimes minute or lacking

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    Inflorescences terminal or axillary, sessile or pedunculate, racemose (spikes, fascicles, umbels or heads), flowers rarely solitary, often with deciduous or persistent bracts

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    Stamens as many or twice as many as the calyx-lobes (rarely reduced to 2 or 1), in 1–2 whorls, the upper whorl antisepalous; anthers with short filaments or sessile, 2-thecous, usually introrse, rarely extrorse or horseshoe-like, opening by slits lengthwise; pollen globose, usually polyforate with “ croton-pattern ”

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    Petals (petaloid appendages or scales) generally inserted in the throat of the calyx-tube, equal or double the number of the calyx-lobes, well developed, entire or divided, often reduced to small fleshy glands or lacking

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    Calyx (hypanthium, perianth or receptacle) tubular or funnel-shaped, sometimes articulated above the ovary, usually coloured, often petal-like; lobes (3–)4–5(–6), usually imbricate, equal or often with the two interior slightly smaller

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    Flowers bisexual, polygamous or dioecious, regular or rarely slightly irregular, sweetly scented at night

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Trees or shrubs (sometimes lianes), rarely perennial herbs, very rarely annuals

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    Stems and branches with tough cortical, often shining, fibres

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    Leaves alternate or opposite, sessile or shortly petiolate, simple, entire, small needle-like, 1-nerved, to large flat, pinnately nerved, without stipules, herbaceous or coriaceous, sometimes glandular-punctate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    • 2
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    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, regular or rarely slightly irregular, sweetly scented at night

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    Calyx tubular or funnel-shaped, sometimes articulated above the ovary, usually coloured, often petal-like; lobes (3)4–5(6), usually imbricate, equal or often with the two interior slightly smaller

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    Leaves alternate or opposite, sometimes whorled, sessile or shortly petiolate, simple, entire, small needle-like and 1-nerved to large flat and pinnately nerved, without stipules, herbaceous or coriaceous, sometimes glandular punctate

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    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Inflorescences terminal or axillary, sessile or pedunculate, racemose (spikes, fascicles, umbels or heads), rarely 1-flowered, often with deciduous or persistent bracts

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    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Ovary superior, 1–2(rarely 4–12)-locular, sessile or shortly stipitate; ovules 1 per locule, usually pendulous, anatropous; style filiform, sometimes very short, terminal or lateral; stigma usually capitate, sometimes papillate

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Disk hypogynous, membranous or fleshy, annular, cupular or scale-like, sometimes slightly crenate, now and then minute or lacking

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    Stamens as many or twice as many as the calyx lobes (rarely reduced to 2 or 1), in 1–2 whorls, those of the upper whorl opposite the calyx lobes; anthers with filaments or sessile, 2-thecous, usually introrse, rarely extrorse, or horseshoe-like, opening lengthwise by slits; pollen grains globose, usually polyporate with ‘Croton pattern’

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 3
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    Petals generally inserted in the throat of the calyx tube, equalling or double the number of calyx lobes, well developed, entire or divided, sometimes ciliate, often reduced to small fleshy glands or lacking

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Seed usually with a caruncle-like appendage, outer coat thin or crustaceous, usually black, with or without endosperm; embryo straight; cotyledons flat or thickened, narrow or broad

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Fruit often a berry, sometimes a nut, drupe or loculicidal capsule, usually enclosed in the base of the persistent calyx tube

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Trees or shrubs, sometimes lianes, rarely perennial herbs, very rarely annuals, sometimes dioecious or polygamous

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 3
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    Stems and branches with tough cortical, often shiny fibres

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Chemistry

    Most thymelaeaceous plants contain toxic substances

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Domke, F. W. 1934. Untersuchungen über die systematische und geographische Gliederung der Thymelaeaceen. Biblioth. Bot. 27: 1–151. Fuchs, A. 1938. Beiträge zur Embryologie der Thymelaeaceae. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 87: 1–41. Gilg, E. 1894. Thymelaeaceae. In: H. G. A. Engler and K. Prantl, eds. 1887–1915. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien.... 254 fascs. Leipzig. Fasc. 106[III,6a], pp. 217–245. Nevling, L. I. Jr. 1962. Thymelaeaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 43: 428–434.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Daphne Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Thymelaeaceae
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).