Santalaceae R.Br.
  • Prodr. 305. 1810. (27 Mar 1810)
  • Sandalwood Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Santalaceae R.Br. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000543. Accessed on: 22 Jan 2020'

General Information

Shrubs or trees, root parasites [stem parasites], evergreen or deciduous, synoecious or dioecious [monoecious, andromonoecious]. Leaves opposite [alternate, whorled], simple; stipules absent; petiole present; blade margins entire; venation pinnate. Inflorescences unisexual or bisexual, axillary or terminal, thyrses or umbels [spikes, racemes, cymes, panicles, fascicles], or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual or unisexual; perianth and androecium perigynous or epigynous; hypanthium adnate to ovary proximally, free distally [completely adnate to ovary]; sepals 0; petals 3–4(–5), distinct, valvate, post-staminal hairs present or absent; nectary present [absent]; stamens 3–4(–5), opposite petals, distinct, free; anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits; staminodes present in pistillate flowers; pistil 1, 1–3-carpellate, ovary 1/2-inferior or inferior, 1–3-locular proximally, 1-locular distally, placentation free central, pendulous; ovules 2–4 per ovary, anatropous; style 1; stigma 1. Fruits pseudodrupes (mesocarp hard). Seeds 1 per fruit.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Herbs or shrubs, rarely trees, usually root hemiparasites, occasionally aerial hemiparasites (Dendrotrophe and Phacellaria); nodes not articulated, mostly glabrous, less often hairy, hairs simple. Leaves usually alternate (opposite in Buckleya), sometimes scale-like (absent in Phacellaria); stipules absent; petiole often indistinct; leaf blade simple, usually pinnately veined, sometimes palmately 3-9-veined (in Dendrotrophe), margin entire. Inflorescences mostly axillary, occasionally terminal (in Buckleya), cymose, umbellate, paniculate, racemelike, spicate, or clustered, sometimes 1-flowered; bracts scale-like, small, sometimes forming involucre, sometimes ± adnate to pedicel (in Thesium); bracteoles sometimes present, paired. Flowers bisexual or unisexual (plants usually dioecious, rarely monoecious), actinomorphic, 3-6(-8)-merous, very small; perianth lobes 3-6(-8), slightly fleshy. Male flowers: perianth lobes valvate or slightly imbricate in bud, incurved or patent when flowering, sparsely hairy or with tongue-shaped appendage at the insertion of the stamens. Disk epigynous or perigynous, sometimes absent, margin sinuate or lobed, sometimes distinct, glandular or scaly. Stamens as many as and opposite to perianth lobes, usually on the base of lobes; filaments filiform, short; anthers gynobasic or dorsifixed near base, 2-celled, parallel or divaricate, dehiscence usually longitudinal. Female and bisexual flowers: perianth tube usually longer than that of male. Ovary inferior or half-inferior, 1- or 5-12-loculed; ovules 1-3(-5), anatropous or hemitropous, integument absent. Style 1; stigma capitate, small, truncate or lobed. Fruit a drupe or a nut, exocarp usually fleshy, endocarp crustaceous or bony. Seed 1, without a differentiated testa; endosperm copious, usually white and partitioned, fleshy; embryo cylindric, straight, small, smooth, rugose, or many ridged. 2n = 5, 6, 7, 12, 13+.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Fruit nut-like or drupaceous

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Seed without a testa; endosperm copious; embryo straight; cotyledons mostly terete

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    Ovules 1–3, pendulous from the top of a basal placenta

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    Stamens the same number as the calyx-lobes and opposite to them; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise

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    Petals absent

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    Ovary inferior or half inferior, 1-celled; style simple

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    Disk epigynous

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Leaves alternate or opposite, entire, sometimes reduced to scales, exstipulate

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 2
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    Trees, shrubs or herbs, sometimes parasitic on trees or roots

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Calyx often fleshy, adnate to the ovary, lobes 3–6, valvate or slightly imbricate

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    Flowers often greenish, hermaphrodite or unisexual, actinomorphic

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    • 2
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    Seed solitary; testa obsolete; cotyledons surrounded by copious fleshy, oily or starchy endosperm

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    Herbs, shrubs or trees, hemiparasitic

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Ovary (in genera of the Flora Zambesiaca area) inferior, unilocular, placenta erect, free-central with 2–3 pendulous ovules; style simple, cylindric or sometimes nearly wanting; stigma terminal, capitate or 2–3(5)-lobed

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    Fruit indehiscent, dry or fleshy (nut or drupe)

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    Stamens as many as and opposite the lobes, inserted at or below their base; anthers (in genera of the Flora Zambesiaca area) with 2 parallel thecae opening by longitudinal slits

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    Disk epigynous, intrastaminal, lobed, often lining at least the lower part of the perianth tube

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    Leaves often alternate, sometimes opposite, petiolate or sessile, simple, entire, sometimes reduced to scales, exstipulate

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    Flowers in various sorts of essentially cymose inflorescences, often with a small dichasium axillary to each bract, small, often greenish, hermaphrodite or unisexual (then plants monoecious or dioecious), regular, monochlamydeous, the lobes distinct (in genera of the Flora Zambesiaca area), forming a valvate 3–5-lobed fleshy cup or tube

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    • 3
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    Seed solitary; testa obsolete; cotyledons surrounded by copious fleshy, oily or starchy endosperm

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fruit indehiscent, dry or fleshy (nut or drupe)

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    • 4
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    Ovary (in tropical African genera) inferior, unilocular; placenta erect, free-central with 2–3 pendulous ovules; style simple, cylindric or sometimes nearly wanting; stigma terminal, capitate or 2–3(–5)-lobed

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    • 4
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    Disk epigynous, intrastaminal, lobed, often lining at least the lower part of the perianth tube

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Leaves often alternate, sometimes opposite, petiolate or sessile, simple, entire, sometimes reduced to scales, exstipulate

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    • 4
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    Herbs, shrubs or trees, hemiparasitic

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Stamens as many as and opposite the lobes, inserted at or below their base; anthers (in tropical African genera) with 2 parallel thecae opening by longitudinal slits

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Flowers in various sorts of essentially cymose inflorescences, often with a small dichasium axillary to each bract, small, often greenish, hermaphrodite or unisexual (then plants monoecious or dioecious), regular, monochlamydeous, the lobes distinct (in tropical African genera), forming a valvate 3–5-lobed fleshy cup or tube

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    • 4
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCE Der, J. P. and D. L. Nickrent. 2008. A molecular phylogeny of Santalaceae (Santalales). Syst. Bot. 33: 107–116.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Sandalwood Family

     Information From

    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • A Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Santalaceae
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).