Rubiaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 196. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Rubiaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000534. Accessed on: 22 Jan 2020'

General Information

Trees, shrubs, annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs, vines, or lianas, infrequently monocaulous or creeping and rooting at nodes, terrestrial or infrequently epiphytic, with bisexual flowers, infrequently dioecious, or rarely polygamo-dioecious (Diplospora, Galium, Guettarda, perhaps Brachytome) or monoecious (Galium), evergreen or sometimes deciduous (Hymenodictyon), sometimes armed with straight to curved spines (formed by modified stems or peduncles), infrequently with elongated principal stems bearing lateral short shoots (i.e., brachyblasts; Benkara, Catunaregam, Ceriscoides, Himalrandia, Leptodermis, Serissa), infrequently with lateral branches or short shoots spinescent (i.e., prolonged, sharp, and leafless at apex), infrequently with reduced internodes that give an appearance of verticillate leaf arrangement (Brachytome, Damnacanthus, Duperrea, Rothmannia, Rubovietnamia), infrequently with buds resinous (Gardenia) or mucilaginous (Scyphiphora), infrequently with tissues fetid when bruised, [rarely with swollen hollow stems or leaf bases housing ants (Neonauclea)]; branchlets terete to angled or quadrate, in latter two cases often becoming terete with age, or rarely flattened (Wendlandia) or winged (Hedyotis, Rubia), buds conical or rounded with stipules valvate or imbricate, or infrequently flattened with stipules erect and pressed together (Cinchona, Haldina, Nauclea, Neonauclea). Raphides present or absent. Leaves opposite, verticillate, or apparently verticillate (i.e., closely set due to reduced internodes), decussate or occasionally distichous, petiolate to sessile, infrequently somewhat to strongly anisophyllous, rarely punctate- or striate-glandular (Galium); margins flat to occasionally undulate or crisped, entire or rarely lobed (Hymenodictyon, Morinda) to denticulate or serrate (Hymenodictyon, Leptomischus, Ophiorrhiza, Wendlandia); secondary veins pinnate or rarely triplinerved or palmate (Hedyotis, Rubia), free (i.e., eucamptodromous) or uniting near margins (i.e., brochidodromous) in weak to well-developed or rarely substraight submarginal vein, sometimes with foveolate (i.e., pitted or cryptlike) and/or tufted (i.e., pubescent) domatia (i.e., structures that house mites) in abaxial axils, these rarely also present in axils of tertiary veins (Morinda), with presence of domatia often variable within a species; tertiary and/or quaternary venation rarely arranged in regular squares (Guettarda), regular rectangles (i.e., clathrate; Urophyllum), or lineolate (i.e., closely parallel within each areole; Timonius); petiole rarely articulate at base (Ixora); stipules persistent with leaves, deciduous before leaves, or quickly caducous, interpetiolar and infrequently fused to adjacent petioles or leaf bases, sometimes united around stem into a sheath, rarely completely united into a conical cap (i.e., calyptrate; Gardenia), with interpetiolar portion variously triangular in general shape to truncate, with apex entire or bilobed, multifid, lacerate, setose, or laterally appendaged, with apex, lobes, setae, and/or appendages sometimes glandular (Chassalia, Hedyotis, Hymenodictyon, Knoxia, Mitchella, Mycetia, Neanotis, Ophiorrhiza, Pentas, Pseudopyxis, Psychotria, Trailliaedoxa), internally (i.e., adaxially) with small to well-developed colleters (i.e., glandular trichomes), these infrequently persistent after stipules fall (Psychotria), or stipules rarely expanded into 1 to several leaflike segments and then apparently absent due to leaflike form that gives an appearance of verticillate leaves (Argostemma, Asperula, Galium<

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Trees, shrubs or rarely herbs

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite or rarely verticillate, entire; stipules inter- or intra-petiolar, often connate, rarely leafy and not distinguishable from the leaves

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Seeds rarely winged, mostly with endosperm, the latter rarely ruminate; embryo straight or curved

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Ovary inferior or rarely superior, 2- or more-celled, with axile, apical or basal placentas, or rarely 1-celled with parietal placentas; style often slender; ovules 1 to many

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Fruit a capsule, berry or drupe

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Corolla epigynous, more or less tubular, rarely campanulate; lobes 4-12, contorted, imbricate or valvate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Stamens epipetalous, as many as and alternate with the corolla-lobes; anthers mostly separate, 2-celled, opening lengthwise or rarely by terminal pores, rarely transversely septate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Flowers usually hermaphrodite, actinomorphic or very rarely slightly zygomorphic, solitary to capitate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Calyx adnate to the ovary

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Small to large trees, shrubs or less often annual or perennial herbs or woody or herbaceous climbers, sometimes spiny; tissues in many tribes containing abundant rhaphides

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite or verticillate, decussate, almost always entire, very rarely (not in Africa) palmatifid, toothed or finely denticulate, always obviously stipulate (save in some Rubieae, where the stipules may be considered foliar or almost absent according to interpretation), the stipules interpetiolar or intrapetiolar, entire or, particularly in herbaceous genera, variously divided into lobes or fimbriae, often tipped or separated by mucilaginous hairs known as colleters and often with colleters inside the base; the leaves in certain tribes sometimes contain small bacterial nodules

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Corolla small to large and showy, gamopetalous, rotate to salver-shaped or funnel-shaped, the tube often very long, (3)4–5(11)-lobed, the lobes mostly contorted or valvate, sometimes valvate-induplicate, rarely imbricate or quincuncial

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Calyx gamosepalous, the tube mostly adnate to the ovary, (3)4–5(8)-toothed or lobed, sometimes only minutely so, with open, valvate, imbricate or contorted aestivation, 1 or several lobes sometimes slightly to very considerably enlarged to form a leafy often coloured lamina

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Flowers rarely solitary, mostly in various terminal or axillary inflorescences, all basically cymose but variously aggregated into panicles, etc., occasionally in globose heads to an extent that the ovaries are adnate; bracts vestigial to well developed, even conspicuous; flowers usually hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual, regular or nearly so (except in Posoqueria (America)) or corolla tube rarely curved, homostylous or quite often heterostylous with 2 or rarely 3 forms (long-styled (dolichostylous), short-styled (brachystylous) or equal-styled (isostylous))

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Ovary inferior, rarely half-inferior or (in Gaertnera) superior, syncarpous of 2–5 or more carpels, but predominantly of 2 and therefore predominantly 2-locular, but 3–5 or even 12 or more (eg in Urophylleae due to supplementary incomplete partitions); placentation axile or (in some Gardenieae) parietal; ovules 1-many per locule, often embedded in fleshy placentas, erect, basal or horizontal, anatropous; style simple, usually long and narrow, the “stigma” either cylindrical, clavate, or otherwise modified to form a “receptaculum pollinis” or divided into 2-many linear, spathulate or clavate lobes, the actual stigmatic surface sometimes confined to certain areas, eg the inner faces of the lobes

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Disc often present, 2-lobed or tubular

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Pollen various, mostly simple, isopolar and 3-colporate, but sometimes porate, the number of colpi or pores varying from 2–25, globose, ovoid or discoid, sometimes (in some Gardenieae) in tetrads or rarely polyads

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stamens usually as many as the corolla-lobes and alternate with them, epipetalous; anthers basi-or dorsifixed, introrse, the thecae rarely multilocellate transversely

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Seeds small to rather large, sometimes winged; testa cells in some tribes with very distinct pits; albumen present (save in Guettardeae); embryo straight or rarely curved, the radicle mostly longer than the cotyledons

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Fruit small to quite large (0|2–20 cm.), a capsule, berry or drupe or indehiscent or woody, occasionally (eg in Naulea and Morinda) united to form syncarps, (1)2-many-seeded, if capsules then loculicidal or septicidal or opening by a beak

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Flowers rarely solitary, mostly in various terminal or axillary inflorescences, all basically cymose but variously aggregated into panicles, etc., occasionally in globose heads to an extent that the ovaries are adnate; bracts vestigial to well developed, even conspicuous; flowers usually hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual, regular or nearly so (except in >i>Posoqueria (America)) or corolla-tube rarely curved, homostylous or quite often heterostylous with 2 or rarely 3 forms (long-styled (dolichostylous), short-styled (brachystylous) or equal-styled (isostylous))

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Calyx gamosepalous, the tube mostly adnate to the ovary, (3–)4–5(–8)-toothed or -lobed, sometimes only minutely so, with open, valvate, imbricate or contorted aestivation, 1 or several lobes sometimes slightly to very considerably enlarged to form a leafy often coloured lamina

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Small to large trees, shrubs or less often annual or perennial herbs or woody or herbaceous climbers, sometimes spiny; tissues in many tribes containing abundant rhaphides

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite or verticillate, decussate, almost always entire, very rarely (not in East Africa) palmatifid, toothed or finely denticulate, always obviously stipulate (save in some Rubieae, where the stipules may be considered foliar or almost absent according to interpretation), the stipules interpetiolar or intrapetiolar, entire or, particularly in herbaceous genera, variously divided into lobes or fimbrieae, often tipped or separated by mucilaginous hairs known as colleters and often with colleters inside the base; the leaves in certain tribes sometimes contain small bacterial nodules

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Corolla small to large and showy, gamopetalous, rotate to salver-shaped or funnel-shaped, the tube often very long, (3–)4–5(–11)-lobed, the lobes mostly contorted or valvate, sometimes valvate-induplicate, rarely imbricate or quincuncial

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Stamens usually as many as the corolla-lobes and alternate with them, epipetalous; anthers basi- or dorsifixed, introrse, the thecae rarely multilocellate transversely

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Pollen various, mostly simple, isopolar and 3-colporate, but sometimes porate, the number of colpi or pores varying from 2 to 25, globose, ovoid or discoid, sometimes (in some >i>Gardenieae) in tetrads or rarely in polyads

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Disc often present, 2-lobed or tubular

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Ovary inferior, rarely half-inferior or (in >i>Gaertnera) superior, syncarpous of 2–5 or more carpels, but predominantly of 2 and therefore predominantly 2-locular, but 3–5 or even 12 or more (e.g. in >i>Urophylleae due to supplementary incomplete partitions); placentation axile or (in some >i>Gardenieae) parietal; ovules 1–many per locule, often embedded in fleshy placentas, erect, basal or horizontal, anatropous; style simple, usually long and narrow, the “stigma” either cylindrical, clavate, or otherwise modified to form a “receptaculum pollinis” or divided into 2–many linear, spathulate or clavate lobes, the actual stigmatic surface sometimes confined to certain areas, e.g. the inner faces of the lobes

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Fruit small to quite large (0.2–20 cm.), a capsule, berry or drupe or indehiscent or woody, occasionally (e.g. in >i>Nauclea and >i>Morinda) united to form syncarps, (1–)2–many-seeded, if capsules then loculicidal or septicidal or opening by a beak

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Seeds small to rather large, sometimes winged; testa cells in some tribes with very distinct pits; albumen present (save in >i>Guettardeae); embryo straight or rarely curved, the radicle mostly longer than the cotyledons

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Seeds small to rather large, sometimes winged; testa cells in some tribes with very distinct pits; endosperm present (save in Guettardeae), entire or ruminate; embryo straight or rarely curved; radicle erect or horizontal, mostly longer than the cotyledons, orientation pendulous

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Fruit small to very large, 2–many-seeded, dehiscent (capsules either loculicidal, septicidal, opening by a beak or infrequently circumscissile, or splitting into mericarps), or indehiscent (berries, including forms with woody walls, or drupes), occasionally (eg in Nauclea and Morinda) united to form syncarps; if drupes containing one-seeded pyrenes thin- or thick-walled, opening by pre-formed germination slits or not, or less often a multi-seeded stone

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Ovary inferior, rarely half-inferior or superior (in Gaertnera), syncarpous of 2–10(12 or more) carpels, but predominantly of 2, and therefore predominantly 2-locular, but 3–10(12) (in Urophylleae can appear higher than actual carpel number due to supplementary incomplete partitions), or infrequently uni-locular (or partly so); ovules l–numerous per locule; placentation axile (attached to septum at apex, middle or base, usually on a placenta, often embedded in fleshy placentas) or infrequently (in some Gardenieae) parietal; ovules anatropous; style simple, usually long (but very short in Rubieae) and narrow, at the top either cylindrical, clavate, or otherwise modified to form a pollen presenter (the actual stigmatic surface sometimes confined to specific areas, eg the inner faces of the lobes**), or divided into 2–many (according to number of carpels) linear, spathulate or clavate stigmatic lobes

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Disk usually functioning as a nectary, positioned above the ovary inside the base of the calyx limb, annular to cushion-shaped or tubular, sometimes 2-lobed, occasionally fused to base of calyx limb-tube (Naucleeae) or absent (in wind-pollinated flowers)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Pollen various, mostly simple, isopolar and 3- colporate, but sometimes porate, the number of colpi or pores varying from 2 to 25, globose, ovoid or discoid, sometimes (in some Gardenieae) in tetrads or rarely in polyads

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Stamens usually as many as the corolla lobes and alternate with them, epipetalous or not (some New World tribes only); anthers basi- or more often dorsifixed, introrse rarely porate (not in the Flora Zambesiaca area), the thecae rarely transversely multilocellate

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Corolla predominantly white but sometimes coloured, small to large and showy, gamopetalous, mostly salver- shaped to funnel-shaped or less often campanulate, occasionally tube very short, the tube rarely curved, (3)4–5(11)-lobed, the lobes contorted (mostly to the left, infrequently to the right) or valvate (sometimes induplicate or reduplicate), with or without a contact zone (i.e. thickened margin), less often imbricate (tab. 73/B–D)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Calyx gamosepalous, the tube (i.e. calyx tube**) mostly adnate to the ovary, the limb with tubular part (i.e. limb-tube) present or absent, truncate or bearing minute teeth to well developed lobes (tab. 73/A1–A4), valvate (often separated by sinuses), or less often imbricate or contorted in aestivation, in a few genera 1–several lobes sometimes slightly to considerably enlarged to form a leaf-like often coloured blade (calycophyll) (tab. 73/A5)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Stipules interpetiolar or occasionally intrapetiolar (mostly New World taxa); lobes shortly fused above the petioles and sometimes forming a sheath, or lobes free, entire, bifid or rarely laciniate, or particularly in herbaceous genera, fimbriate, often tipped with or separated by colleters (mucilaginous glands) (tab. 74), often with colleters inside the limb, especially towards the base

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences terminal or axillary, basically thyrsoid, variously aggregated into panicles etc., occasionally in globose heads sometimes to an extent that the ovaries are adnate, or sometimes flowers solitary; bracts vestigial to well developed, even conspicuous

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Flowers regular or slightly to distinctly (not in Africa) zygomorphic, hermaphrodite or less often unisexual, homostylous, in which case very often protandrous, with or without pollen presentation (tab. 73/F,G), or rarely protogynous (not in Africa), or heterostylous with 2 or less often 3 forms (long-styled (dolichostylous), short-styled (brachystylous) or equal-styled (isostylous) (tab. 73/E)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Small to large trees, shrubs (including suffrutices from woody rootstocks) or less often annual or perennial herbs or woody or herbaceous climbers, sometimes spiny; raphides (tab. 1/7) present or absent; crystal sand absent or present (these two mutually exclusive)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite or occasionally verticillate, decussate, almost always entire, very rarely sparsely toothed or lobed (not in the Flora Zambesiaca area), always obviously stipulate (save in some Rubieae, where the stipules may be considered leaf-like or almost absent according to interpretation); domatia (mite associated pits or tufts of hairs) very often present axils of lateral nerves on the leaf lower surface; bacterial nodules present in a few genera

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Flowers regular or slightly to distinctly (not in Africa) zygomorphic, hermaphrodite or less often unisexual, homostylous, in which case very often protandrous, with or without pollen presentation (tab. 73/F,G), or rarely protogynous (not in Africa), or heterostylous with 2 or less often 3 forms (long-styled (dolichostylous), short-styled (brachystylous) or equal-styled (isostylous) (tab. 73/E)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Corolla predominantly white but sometimes coloured, small to large and showy, gamopetalous, mostly salver- shaped to funnel-shaped or less often campanulate, occasionally tube very short, the tube rarely curved, (3)4–5(11)-lobed, the lobes contorted (mostly to the left, infrequently to the right) or valvate (sometimes induplicate or reduplicate), with or without a contact zone (i.e. thickened margin), less often imbricate (tab. 73/B–D)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Calyx gamosepalous, the tube (i.e. calyx tube**) mostly adnate to the ovary, the limb with tubular part (i.e. limb-tube) present or absent, truncate or bearing minute teeth to well developed lobes (tab. 73/A1–A4), valvate (often separated by sinuses), or less often imbricate or contorted in aestivation, in a few genera 1–several lobes sometimes slightly to considerably enlarged to form a leaf-like often coloured blade (calycophyll) (tab. 73/A5)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Pollen various, mostly simple, isopolar and 3- colporate, but sometimes porate, the number of colpi or pores varying from 2 to 25, globose, ovoid or discoid, sometimes (in some Gardenieae) in tetrads or rarely in polyads

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Stamens usually as many as the corolla lobes and alternate with them, epipetalous or not (some New World tribes only); anthers basi- or more often dorsifixed, introrse rarely porate (not in the Flora Zambesiaca area), the thecae rarely transversely multilocellate

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Ovary inferior, rarely half-inferior or superior (in Gaertnera), syncarpous of 2–10(12 or more) carpels, but predominantly of 2, and therefore predominantly 2-locular, but 3–10(12) (in Urophylleae can appear higher than actual carpel number due to supplementary incomplete partitions), or infrequently uni-locular (or partly so); ovules l–numerous per locule; placentation axile (attached to septum at apex, middle or base, usually on a placenta, often embedded in fleshy placentas) or infrequently (in some Gardenieae) parietal; ovules anatropous; style simple, usually long (but very short in Rubieae) and narrow, at the top either cylindrical, clavate, or otherwise modified to form a pollen presenter (the actual stigmatic surface sometimes confined to specific areas, eg the inner faces of the lobes**), or divided into 2–many (according to number of carpels) linear, spathulate or clavate stigmatic lobes

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Disk usually functioning as a nectary, positioned above the ovary inside the base of the calyx limb, annular to cushion-shaped or tubular, sometimes 2-lobed, occasionally fused to base of calyx limb-tube (Naucleeae) or absent (in wind-pollinated flowers)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Seeds small to rather large, sometimes winged; testa cells in some tribes with very distinct pits; endosperm present (save in Guettardeae), entire or ruminate; embryo straight or rarely curved; radicle erect or horizontal, mostly longer than the cotyledons, orientation pendulous

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Fruit small to very large, 2–many-seeded, dehiscent (capsules either loculicidal, septicidal, opening by a beak or infrequently circumscissile, or splitting into mericarps), or indehiscent (berries, including forms with woody walls, or drupes), occasionally (eg in Nauclea and Morinda) united to form syncarps; if drupes containing one-seeded pyrenes thin- or thick-walled, opening by pre-formed germination slits or not, or less often a multi-seeded stone

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Stipules interpetiolar or occasionally intrapetiolar (mostly New World taxa); lobes shortly fused above the petioles and sometimes forming a sheath, or lobes free, entire, bifid or rarely laciniate, or particularly in herbaceous genera, fimbriate, often tipped with or separated by colleters (mucilaginous glands) (tab. 74), often with colleters inside the limb, especially towards the base

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences terminal or axillary, basically thyrsoid, variously aggregated into panicles etc., occasionally in globose heads sometimes to an extent that the ovaries are adnate, or sometimes flowers solitary; bracts vestigial to well developed, even conspicuous

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite or occasionally verticillate, decussate, almost always entire, very rarely sparsely toothed or lobed (not in the Flora Zambesiaca area), always obviously stipulate (save in some Rubieae, where the stipules may be considered leaf-like or almost absent according to interpretation); domatia (mite associated pits or tufts of hairs) very often present axils of lateral nerves on the leaf lower surface; bacterial nodules present in a few genera

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Small to large trees, shrubs (including suffrutices from woody rootstocks) or less often annual or perennial herbs or woody or herbaceous climbers, sometimes spiny; raphides (tab. 1/7) present or absent; crystal sand absent or present (these two mutually exclusive)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Included Genus

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Rubiaceae
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).