Primulaceae Batsch ex Borkh.
  • Bot. Wörterb. 2: 240. 1797.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Primulaceae Batsch ex Borkh. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000497. Accessed on: 20 Oct 2020'

General Information

Annual or perennial (rarely biennial) herbs (suffrutescent in some Primula), sometimes somewhat succulent (Androsace), sometimes rhizomatous (Primula), sometimes stoloniferous (Primula), sometimes with glandular hairs producing crystalline substance that forms farinose coating (Primula); resin canals sometimes present (Hottonia). Stems sometimes inflated (Hottonia). Leaves in basal rosettes (cauline and alternate, opposite, or whorled in Hottonia), simple (pinnately compound in Hottonia); stipules absent; petiole present or absent; blade margins entire, denticulate, ciliolate, or crenulate. Inflorescences terminal, scapose or sessile umbels or solitary flowers; bracts usually present. Flowers bisexual, homostylous or heterostylous (Hottonia, Primula); perianth and androecium hypogynous; sepals 4-5, connate proximally into tube; petals 4-5, connate proximally, corolla campanulate to salverform or tubular with long or short tube; nectaries absent or sometimes nectariferous hairs present; stamens 5, antipetalous, epipetalous, distinct or connate proximally; anthers opening by longitudinal slits; staminodes absent; pistils 1, 5-carpellate; ovary superior, 1-locular; placentation free-central with ± globose central axis; ovules anatropous, bitegmic, not embedded in placentae, tenuinucellate; styles 1, terminal; stigmas 1, usually capitate (rarely truncate). Fruits capsular, dehiscence valvate or operculate. Seeds 1-200+, brown or black, angular or rounded, (rarely with eliasomes in some Primula); embryo straight; endosperm copious, starchless.

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    Herbs perennial or annual, rarely suffruticose. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled, often all basal, simple, entire to lobed. Flowers solitary or in panicles, racemes, or umbels, usually with bracts, perfect, (4- or)5(--9)-merous, often heterostylous (Primula). Calyx persistent. Corolla gamopetalous, actinomorphic, rarely absent (Glaux). Stamens as many as and opposite corolla lobes, ± epipetalous, occasionally with scalelike staminodes. Filaments free or connate into a tube at base. Ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior (Samolus), unilocular; placentation free central; style simple; stigma inconspicuous, capitate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves, rarely circumscissile or indehiscent. Seeds many or few; embryo small, straight, surrounded by endosperm.

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    Morphology

    Flowers solitary to paniculate, actinomorphic, hermaphrodite

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    Calyx persistent, often leafy

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    Annual or perennial herbs or rarely shrubs; stems erect or procumbent and rooting at the nodes

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    Leaves mostly basal, rarely cauline, alternate, opposite or verticillate, simple or lobate, often dentate; stipules absent

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    Stamens inserted on the corolla, the same number as and opposite to the lobes

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    Corolla hypocrateriform, campanulate or tubular, lobes 5, imbricate

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    Fruit a capsule, many-seeded or very rarely 1-seeded

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    Ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior, 1-celled with a free basal placenta and numerous, or very rarely few ovules

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    Seeds angular with a small straight embryo in copious endosperm

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    Seeds few to numerous, often angular

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    Flowers actinomorphic or very rarely zygomorphic, hermaphrodite, often heterostylous, solitary or in racemose, spicate, paniculate, umbellate or verticillate inflorescences

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    Calyx gamosepalous, free or rarely partially adnate to the ovary, (4)5(9)–partite, usually persistent

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    Fruit a capsule with valvate or circumscissile dehiscence, rarely indehiscent

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    Annual or perennial herbs or rarely shrubs; stems erect or prostrate and rooting at nodes

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    Ovary superior or rarely semi–inferior, unilocular; placentation free–central; ovules 2–3 or more, usually many

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    Leaves exstipulate, basal or cauline, alternate, opposite or verticillate, simple or lobed, entire or dentate

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    Corolla gamopetalous, rotate to campa–nulate with a very short to long tube and 4–9–lobed limb, rarely absent

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    Stamens equalling corolla–lobes, usually adnate to the corolla, oppositipetalous, sometimes alternating with staminodes

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    Annual or perennial herbs, or rarely shrubs; stems erect or prostrate and rooting at the nodes

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    Stamens equal in number to and inserted opposite the corolla-lobes

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    Ovary superior or rarely half inferior, 1-locular; ovules 2–3 or usually many on a free central placenta

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    Calyx gamosepalous, free or rarely adnate to the ovary, 4–9-partite, usually persistent

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    Corolla gamopetalous, rotate, hypocrateriform or campanulate, with a very short to long tube and 4–9-partite limb, or corolla rarely absent

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    Leaves basal or cauline, alternate, opposite or verticillate, simple or lobed, entire or dentate; stipules absent

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    Flowers axillary and solitary, racemose, verticillate or paniculate, hermaphrodite, regular, sometimes heterostylous

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    Fruit a capsule, valvate or circumscissile or rarely indehiscent

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    Seeds small, 1, few or usually numerous, often angular

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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Anderberg, A. A. 2004. Primulaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 7+ vols. Berlin, etc. Vol. 6, pp. 313-319. Anderberg, A. A. and S. Kelso. 1996. Phylogenetic implications of endosperm cell wall morphology in Douglasia, Androsace, and Vitaliana (Primulaceae). Nordic J. Bot. 16: 481-486. Källersjö, M., G. Bergqvist, and A. A. Anderberg. 2000. Generic realignment in primuloid families of the Ericales s.l. (Angiosperms): A phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequences from three chloroplast genes and morphology. Amer. J. Bot. 87: 1325-1341. Lens, F. et al. 2005. Comparative wood anatomy of the primuloid clade (Ericales s.l.). Syst. Bot. 30: 163-183. Martins, L., C. Oberprieler, and F. H. Hellwig. 2003. A phylogenetic analysis of Primulaceae s.l. based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) DNA sequence data. Pl. Syst. Evol. 237: 75-85. Mast, A. R. et al. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships in Primula L. and related genera (Primulaceae) based on noncoding chloroplast DNA. Int. J. Pl. Sci. 162: 1381-1400. Mast, A. R., D. M. S. Feller, S. Kelso, and E. Conti. 2004. Buzz-pollinated Dodecatheon originated from within the heterostylous Primula subgenus Auriculastrum (Primulaceae): A seven-region cpDNA phylogeny and its implications for floral evolution. Amer. J. Bot. 91: 926-942. Mast, A. R. and J. L. Reveal. 2007. Transfer of Dodecatheon to Primula (Primulaceae). Brittonia 59: 79-82. Schneeweiss, G. M., P. Schonswetter, S. Kelso, and H. Niklfeld. 2004. Complex biogeographic patterns in Androsace and related genera: Evidence from phylogenetic analyses of nuclear internal transcribed spacer and plastid trnL-F sequences. Syst. Biol. 53: 856-876. Trift, I., M. Källersjö, and A. A. Anderberg. 2002. The monophyly of Primula (Primulaceae) evaluated by analysis of sequences from the chloroplast gene rbcL. Syst. Bot. 27: 396-407.

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     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
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    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
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    Primulaceae
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