Portulacaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 312. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)
  • Purslane Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Portulacaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000493. Accessed on: 07 Jul 2020'

General Information

Subshrubs [shrubs] or herbs, annual, biennial, or perennial, often succulent or fleshy. Leaves opposite, subopposite, or alternate and sometimes secund, sometimes rosulate or subrosulate, exstipulate (except Portulaca and Talinopsis, with nodal or axillary hairs regarded as stipular); blade margins mostly entire, occasionally dentate to crisped. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, cymose, racemose, paniculate, or umbellate, sometimes glomerate, spikelike, or with flowers solitary, open to congested. Flowers mostly radially symmetric, sometimes slightly irregular (in Montia); sepals 2-9; petals (1-)2-19 or sometimes absent, distinct or connate basally; stamens 1-many, opposite and sometimes basally adnate to petals; gynoecium 2-9-carpelled; ovary 1, superior (half-inferior to inferior in Portulaca), 1-locular throughout or initially plurilocular and becoming 1-locular distally (in Portulaca), placentation basal or free-central, ovules 1-many; style present, sometimes branched, or absent; stigmas 1-9. Fruits capsular. Seeds smooth or sculptured, with or without strophioles or elaiosomes. x = 4-9, 11, 13, 15, 23.

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    Herbs annual or perennial, rarely ± shrubby, usually succulent, usually glabrous except for nodal hairs and/or scales. Leaves alternate or opposite; true stipules absent, nodes sometimes with axillary scales and/or hairs; petiole usually poorly defined or absent; leaf blade simple, usually fleshy, margin entire. Inflorescences usually terminal, less often axillary, in cymes or racemelike panicles, forming heads of sessile flowers surrounded by an involucre of leaves, or reduced to solitary flowers. Bracts inconspicuous. Flowers bisexual, very rarely unisexual, actinomorphic. Sepals 2, free or basally connate, herbaceous or scarious. Petals 4-6 or seldom more, distinct or basally connate, imbricate, often brightly colored, usually short lived. Disk usually absent. Stamens 4-100, free, fascicled, or adnate to petals; filaments linear; anthers 2-loculed, introrse, dehiscence longitudinal. Ovary superior or half-inferior, 1-loculed, 2-5-carpellate; ovules 1 to many, campylotropous; placentation basal or free-central. Style linear; stigma 2-9-lobed. Fruit a thin-walled capsule, circumscissile or 2- or 3-valved, rarely a nut, often globose or subglobose, smooth. Seeds many, reniform or globose, caruncle present or not; endosperm mostly copious, surrounded by embryo.

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    Morphology

    Herbs or undershrubs, often, succulent; leaves alternate or opposite, with scarious or setose stipular appendages

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    Seeds globose-reniform; embryo surrounding the copious mealy endosperm

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    Flowers actinomorphic, hermaphrodite, solitary or variously cymose or racemose

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    Sepals 2, imbricate, free or united at the base

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    Petals 4–6, imbricate, free or connate at the base, soon falling

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    Stamens as many as and opposite the petals or more numerous, free; anthers 2-celled

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    Ovary superior or half-inferior, 1-celled with basal placenta; ovules 1 to many; style usually variously divided

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    Fruit a capsule dehiscing by valves or by a transverse split (circumscissile), rarely a nut and indehiscent

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    Ovary superior or half inferior, 1-locular or partially divided into several loculi near the base; placentation basal; ovules 1-?; style simple or variously divided

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    Stamens as many as the petals or more numerous, free or adnate to the petals

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    Fruit a capsule dehiscing by longitudinal valves or circumscissile, very rarely an indehiscent nutlet

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    Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, variously racemose, paniculate or cymose or solitary

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    Petals 4–6 (in all African genera), imbricate, free or connate up to half-way or more, often fugacious

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    Sepals 2, imbricate, free or united at the base

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    Leaves sessile or petiolate, opposite or alternate; stipules scarious or modified into many or few hair-like axillary appendages or absent

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    Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, often succulent

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    Inflorescence cymose, sometimes reduced to a solitary axillary flower, or congested into a raceme-like panicle or terminal head of sessile flowers surrounded by an involucre of leaf-like bracts

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    Leaves opposite or alternate, simple, entire; nodal and axillary scales and/or hairs sometimes present

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    Annual or perennial herbs, occasionally soft-wooded shrubs or small trees, usually with most parts rather succulent

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    Sepals 2, slightly unequal, the outer overlapping both margins of the inner, free or basally connate

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    Flowers regular

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    Petals (3–)4–5(–12), free or basally connate, sometimes adnate to the ovary base, usually conspicuous but fugacious

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    Ovary superior or (in Portulaca) partly inferior, with 2–5 carpels, unilocular, placentation free-central or basal, ovules few to many; style simple; stigma capitate or branched

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    Stamens 3–numerous, often adherent to the petals

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    Seeds 1 to many on long persistent funicles, black or brown with a pale aril (in Flora area), often glossy or with a metallic sheen, embryo curved, testa smooth or concentrically ornamented

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    Fruit a capsule, circumscissile or dehiscing longitudinally, rarely indehiscent

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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Applequist, W. L. and R. S. Wallace. 2001. Phylogeny of the portulacaceous cohort based on ndhF sequence data. Syst. Bot. 26: 406-419. Bogle, A. L. 1969. The genera of Portulacaceae and Basellaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 50: 566-598. Carolin, R. C. 1987. A review of the family Portulacaceae. Austral. J. Bot. 35: 383-412. Carolin, R. C. 1993. Portulacaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 4+ vols. Berlin etc. Vol. 2, pp. 544-555. Hershkovitz, M. A. and E. A. Zimmer. 2000. Ribosomal DNA evidence and disjunctions of western American Portulacaceae. Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 15: 419-439. McNeill, J. 1974. Synopsis of a revised classification of the Portulacaceae. Taxon 23: 725-728. McNeill, J. 1975. A generic revision of Portulacaceae tribe Montieae using techniques of numerical taxonomy. Canad. J. Bot. 53: 789-809. Nilsson, Ö. 1967. Studies in Montia L. and Claytonia L. and allied genera III. Pollen morphology. Grana Palynol., n. s. 7: 279-353. Nyananyo, B. L. 1986. Taxonomic significance of the stomatal complex in the Portulacaceae. Feddes Repert. 97: 763-766. Nyananyo, B. L. 1990. Tribal and generic relationships in the Portulacaceae. Feddes Repert. 101: 237-241. Rydberg, P. A. and P. Wilson. 1932. Portulacaceae. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Flora.... 47+ vols. New York. Vol. 21, pp. 279-336. Swanson, J. R. 1966. A synopsis of relationships in Montioideae (Portulacaceae). Brittonia 18: 229-241.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Purslane Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
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    • B The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Portulacaceae
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).