Papaveraceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 235–236. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Papaveraceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000440. Accessed on: 19 Sep 2020'

General Information

Herbs or subshrubs, shrubs, or small trees , annual, biennial, or perennial, scapose or caulescent, usually from taproots, sometimes from rhizomes; sap clear, white, or colored, often sticky. Stems leafy or naked, erect, spreading, or decumbent, simple or branching. Leaves basal and/or cauline, alternate to opposite or whorled, simple, without stipules, petiolate or sessile; blade unlobed or with 1-3 odd-pinnate, subpalmate, or palmate orders of lobes. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, unifloral or else multifloral and cymiform, racemose, umbelliform, corybiform, or paniculate, pedunculate or subsessile; bracts usually present. Flowers radially symmetric, pedicellate or sessile; receptacle sometimes expanded and forming cup or ring beneath calyx (only in Eschscholzia , Meconella , and Platystemon ); perianth and androecium sometimes perigynous; sepals caducous, 2 or 3, distinct or connate, usually obovate; petals distinct, usually obovate, mostly 2 times number of sepals, sometimes more or absent; stamens many or 4-15 (only in Meconella and Canbya ); anthers 2-locular; pistil 1, 2-18[-22]-carpellate; ovary 1-2-locular or incompletely to completely multilocular by placental intrusion; placentas 2 or more, parietal; style 1 or absent; stigmas or stigma lobes 2-many. Fruits capsular, dehiscence valvate, poricidal, or transverse, or carpels dissociating and breaking transversely into 1-seeded segments (only in Platystemon ). Seeds usually many, small, sometimes arillate or carunculate.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Herbs, annual, biennial, monocarpic perennial, perennial, or shrubby. Laticifers or elongated idioblasts present. Leaves alternate or in a basal rosette, rarely opposite or whorled, usually without stipules; leaf blade entire to compound. Inflorescences racemes, panicles, dichasia, pseudoumbels, or solitary flowers. Flowers actinomorphic, bisymmetric, or zygomorphic, always bisexual, usually 2-merous, rarely 3- or 4-merous. Calyx caducous, green or petaloid. Corolla choripetalous or quasi-sympetalous, very rarely absent. Anthers opening by slits. Ovary superior, syncarpous with 2 to several carpels; placentation parietal.

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    Morphology

    Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs with coloured juice, often glaucescent and prickly, or rarely shrubs or small trees; root usually a rhizome or tuber

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    Sepals 2, rarely 3, green, falling off separately on the opening of the flower or united into a deciduous calyptra

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    Perianth of calyx and corolla, or rarely the latter absent

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    Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, hypogynous or rarely perigynous, mostly solitary, fugacious and visited by pollen-eating insects

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    Leaves exstipulate, alternate, rarely the floral leaves opposite or whorled, much divided, rarely entire

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    Petals showy, 4 or 6, rarely 8 or 12, free, imbricate and often crumpled in the bud, deciduous

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    Stamens numerous, rarely few, free, with filiform filaments; anthers mostly nearly as long as the filaments, 2-celled, dehiscing by longitudinal slits

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    Fruit a capsule, opening by valves or pores

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    Ovules numerous, rarely solitary

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    Seeds small, with minute embryo in fleshy or oily endosperm

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    Ovary free, of 2 or more united carpels, 1-celled with parietal placentas, or several-celled by the placentas reaching to the middle

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    Seeds small, numerous; endosperm oily

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    Ovary syncarpous, 1-locular with parietal placentas (rarely multilocular or spuriously 2-locular) and numerous ovules

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    Fruit usually a capsule dehiscing by valves or pores

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    Petals 4–6 (12) free, imbricate, fugacious

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    Stamens usually numerous

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    Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual, usually hypogynous

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    Sepals 2–3, imbricate, free or calyptrate, caducous

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    Annual, biennial or perennial herbs (rarely shrubby), usually with white or yellowish latex, with alternate, exstipulate leaves

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    Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs, and only 1 tree genus (Bocconia L.), with white, yellow or orange coloured latex

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    Flowers usually solitary, conspicuous and large, bisexual, regular, hypogynous

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    Sepals 2–3, imbricate, usually free or calyptrate, caducous

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    Leaves alternate or rarely whorled, exstipulate, entire to much divided (palmately, pinnately etc.)

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    Ovary superior, usually unilocular, more rarely with 2 to several locules ; ovules numerous ; placentation parietal

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    Stigmas opposite or alternate with placentas

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    Petals (4–)6(–12), more rarely absent, imbricate, arranged in l–2(–3) whorls, crumpled in bud

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    Stamens free, usually numerous, spirally arranged, rarely 4 and cyclic ; anthers 2-celled with longitudinal dehiscence

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    Seeds small, numerous, with minute embryo and copious, usually oily, endosperm

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    Fruit usually a capsule dehiscing by valves or pores, rarely indehiscent

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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Ernst, W. R. 1962. A Comparative Morphology of the Papaveraceae. Ph.D. dissertation. Stanford University. Ernst, W. R. 1962b. The genera of Papaveraceae and Fumariaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 43: 315-343. Ernst, W. R. 1967. Floral morphology and systematics of Platystemon and its allies Hesperomecon and Meconella (Papaveraceae: Platystemonoideae). Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 47: 25-70. Fedde, F. 1909. Papaveraceae-Hypecoideae et Papaveraceae-Papaveroideae. In: H. G. A. Engler, ed. 1900-1953. Das Pflanzenreich. 107 vols. Berlin. Vol. 40[IV,104], pp. 1-430. Fedde, F. 1936. Papaveraceae. In: H. G. A. Engler et al., eds. 1924+. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2. 26+ vols. Leipzig and Berlin. Vol. 17b, pp. 5-145. Grey-Wilson, C. 1993. Poppies: A Guide to the Poppy Family in the Wild and in Cultivation. Portland. Gunn, C. R. 1980. Seeds and fruits of Papaveraceae and Fumariaceae. Seed Sci. Techn. 8: 3-58. Gunn, C. R. and M. J. Seldin. 1976. Seeds and Fruits of North American Papaveraceae. Washington. [U.S.D.A. Agric. Res. Serv., Techn. Bull. 1517.] Harms, H. 1936. Reihe Rhoeadales. In: H. G. A. Engler et al., eds. 1924+. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2. 26+ vols. Leipzig and Berlin. Vol. 17b, pp. 1-4. Hutchinson, J. 1925. Contributions towards a phylogenetic classification of flowering plants: V. The genera of Papaveraceae. Bull. Misinform. Kew 1925: 161-168. Kadereit, J. W. 1993. Papaveraceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 2+ vols. Berlin etc. Vol. 2, pp. 494-506. Stermitz, F. R. 1968. Alkaloid chemistry and the systematics of Papaver and Argemone. Recent Advances Phytochem. 1: 161-183.

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     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Flora of North America Association
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    • D
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Papaveraceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
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