Liliaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 48. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)
  • Lily Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Liliaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000336. Accessed on: 27 Feb 2020'

General Information

Herbs perennial, with a rhizome, bulb, or corm, rarely shrubby or treelike. Leaves basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, parallel or rarely reticulate veined. Inflorescence a raceme, panicle, spike, umbel, reduced panicle, or other, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic; bracts present or absent; bracteoles present or absent. Perianth usually corollalike, 6-merous, rarely 4- or 8-merous, in 2 whorls; segments free (tepals) or united. Stamens 6, rarely 3, 4, or 8, inserted opposite perianth segments; filaments free or adnate to perianth, rarely connate into a corona; anthers usually 2-loculed, basifixed or dorsifixed and versatile, introrse, latrorse, or extrorse, dehiscing usually by vertical slits. Carpels usually connate for most or all of their length, rarely only at base; ovary superior, rarely semi-inferior, 3-loculed, rarely 2- or 4-loculed, with axile placentae, or rarely 1-loculed with a parietal placenta; ovules usually anatropous. Nectaries septal, perigonal, or absent. Fruit a capsule or berry. Seeds with abundant endosperm and small embryo.

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    Herbs or shrubs, sometimes vines in Asparagus, perennial, mostly geophytic, scapose or caulescent, sometimes woody, from elongate, sometimes tuberous rhizomes, or from scaly or tunicate bulbs, or from solid corms. Leaves only rarely persistent, simple, basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, or whorled, herbaceous (scalelike in Asparagus), sometimes sheathing; blade typically narrow and parallel-veined, occasionally broad and/or reticulate-veined. Inflorescences racemose, spicate, paniculate, cymose, umbellate, or with flowers single or paired in leaf axils; bracts 1–several, sometimes involucrate or sheathing, or bracts absent. Flowers usually bisexual, sometimes bisexual and unisexual, or unisexual only, usually pedicellate, occasionally sessile; perianth actinomorphic or zygomorphic, often very showy; tepals 6, distinct or less often connate proximally forming tube that may also bear a corona, usually petaloid and ± equal in 2 whorls of 3, or those of outer whorl narrower, greener, more sepaloid; tepal nectaries often present; stamens 6, rarely 3 or 4, sometimes 3 fertile and 3 staminodial, free or adnate to perianth; filaments slender to dilated, occasionally connate-coroniform and/or with bases dilated to form wings; anthers basifixed with latrorse dehiscence or dorsifixed, versatile, and with introse or extrorse dehiscence, cordate to linear; ovary superior to inferior, (2–)3(–4)-locular, often with septal nectaries, ovules usually several or many per locule; styles 1 or 3(–4); stigmas several and distinct or 1 and capitate. Fruits capsular and loculicidal or septicidal, membranaceous to leathery, or baccate, or dry and indehiscent. Seeds 1–many, often flat and wind-distributed, sometimes thicker and with fleshy elaiosomes. x = 3–27+.

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    Morphology

    Perianth mostly corolla-like, with or without a tube; segments usually 6, rarely 4 or more, in 2 similar series, imbricate or the outer valvate

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    Stamens usually 6, hypogynous or adnate to and always opposite to the perianth segments; filaments usually free; anthers 2-celled, usually opening by a slit lengthwise

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    Herbs, mostly perennial, or rarely soft-wooded shrubs; roots from a rhizome, corm or bulb, or tuberous; stem erect or climbing, leafy or scapose

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    Flowers bisexual or rarely unisexual, actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic, sometimes large and showy, never in umbels

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    Seeds with copious endosperm

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    Fruit a capsule or berry

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    Ovary superior, mostly 3-locular with axile placentas, or rarely 1-locular with parietal placentas; style entire or divided, rarely styles free

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    Ovules usually numerous and mostly 2-seriate in each loculus

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    Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic or occasionally weakly zygomorphic

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    Inflorescence a terminal raceme, sometimes umbel-like, or a single terminal flower, bracts subtending flowers absent or present and leaf-like

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    Stamens in 2 series of 3; anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits

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    Perianth segments 6 in 2 whorls, free to base, usually brightly coloured, often with contrasting basal nectaries

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    Leaves basal or cauline, sometimes petiolate, 1- many, alternate or verticillate, linear to ovate-lanceolate, bases sometimes sheathing, veins parallel

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    Erect perennial geophytes; bulbs formed of 1 to many scales attached to reduced stem, tunicate or not

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    Fruit a loculicidal capsule with numerous seeds

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    Ovary superior, trilocular, with numerous ovules per locule; style solitary, erect, short to long; stigma capitate to 3-lobed

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    Seeds flattened, discoid to ellipsoidal

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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Ambrose, J. D. 1975. Comparative Anatomy and Morphology of the Melanthioideae (Liliaceae). Ph.D. dissertation. Cornell University. Ambrose, J. D. 1980. A re-evaluation of the Melanthioideae (Liliaceae) using numerical analyses. In: C. D. Brickell et al., eds. 1980. Petaloid Monocotyledons: Horticultural and Botanical Research. London and New York. Pp. 65–81. Badawi, A. and Z. Elwan. 1986. A taxonomic study of Liliaceae sensu lato: I. Numerical analysis. Phytologia 60: 201–213. Badawi, A. and Z. Elwan. 1986b. A taxonomic study of Liliaceae sensu lato: II. Evaluation of Engler’s subfamilies. Phytologia 60: 214–221. Barnard, C. 1960. Floral histogenesis in the monocotyledons. IV. The Liliaceae. Austral. J. Bot. 8: 213–225. Bayer, E. 1998. Alstroemeriaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 4+ vols. Berlin, etc. Vol. 3, pp. 79–83. Chase, M. W., P. J. Rudall, and J. G. Conran. 1996. New circumscriptions and a new family of asparagoid lilies: Genera formerly included in Anthericaceae. Kew Bull. 51: 667–680. Cheadle, V. I. and H. Kosakai. 1971. Vessels in Liliaceae. Phytomorphology 21: 320–333. Clifford, H. T., R. J. F. Henderson, and J. G. Conran. 1998. Hemerocallidaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 4+ vols. Berlin, etc. Vol. 3, pp. 245–253. Conran, J. G. 1998. Anthericaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 4+ vols. Berlin, etc. Vol. 3, pp. 114–121. Conran, J. G. and M. N. Tamura. 1998. Convallariaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 4+ vols. Berlin, etc. Vol. 3, pp. 186–198. Fay, M. F. and M. W. Chase. 1996. Resurrection of Themidaceae for the Brodiaea alliance, and recircumscription of Alliaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Agapanthoideae. Taxon 45: 441–451. Fay, M. F. and M. W. Chase. 2000. Modern concepts of Liliaceae with a focus on the relationships of Fritillaria. Bot. Mag., [n. s.] 17: 146–149. Fuse, S. and M. N. Tamura. 2000. A phylogenetic analysis of the plastid matK gene with emphasis on Melanthiaceae sensu lato. Pl. Biol. 2: 415–427. Gates, R. R. 1918. A systematic study of the North American Melanthaceae from a genetic standpoint. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 44: 131–172. Ito, M. et al. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships of Amaryllidaceae based on matK sequence data. J. Pl. Res. 112: 207–216. Johnson, R. G. 1969. A Taxonomic and Floristic Study of the Liliaceae and Allied Families in the Southeastern United States. Ph.D. dissertation. West Virginia University. Judd, W. S. 1997. The Asphodelaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Pap. Bot. 2: 109–123. Judd, W. S. 2001. The Asparagaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Pap. Bot. 6: 223–244. Kato, H. et al. 1995b. Molecular systematics of the Trilliaceae sensu lato as inferred from rbcL sequence data. Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 4: 184–193. Komar, G. A. 1983. Morphology of Liliaceae ovules. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 68: 417–427. Kosenko, V. N. 1987. Pollen morphology in Tofieldieae, Narthecieae, Melanthieae, Xerophylleae (Melanthiaceae). Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 72: 1318–1330. Kosenko, V. N. 1988. Pollen morphology in Chionographideae, Uvularieae, Tricyrtideae, Scoliopeae, Anguillarieae, Iphigenieae, Glorioseae, Colchiceae (Melanthiaceae). Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 73: 172–185. Kosenko, V. N. 1991. Palynomorphology of the family Liliaceae s. str. Bot. Zhurn. (Moscow & Leningrad) 76: 1696–1710. Kubitzki, K. 1998b. Hostaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 4+ vols. Berlin, etc. Vol. 3, pp. 256–260. Kubitzki, K. and P. J. Rudall. 1998. Asparagaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants

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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Lily Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    Liliaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).