Iridaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 57. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)
  • Iris Family


This taxon is accepted by World Flora Online consortium
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Herbs, perennial, rarely annual [or shrubs with woody caudex], evergreen or seasonal, sometimes cespitose; rootstock a rhizome, bulb, or corm. Flowering stems aerial (or subterranean in Romulea), simple or branched, terete or variously compressed, angled or winged. Leaves basal and cauline, distichous; proximal 2–3 sometimes membranous, not reaching much above ground; others with open or closed sheaths, usually unifacial [bifacial or terete], oriented edgewise to the stem; blade parallel-veined, plane or pleated, channeled. Inflorescences umbellate, monochasial cymes (rhipidia), spikes, or solitary flowers; rhipidia enclosed in 2, opposed, usually large, leafy to dry bracts (spathes); flowers except for the first subtended by 1 floral bract; spike flowers each subtended by 2, opposed bracts. Flowers usually pedicellate [± sessile]; per-ianth actinomorphic or zygomorphic, petaloid, with 2 equal or unequal whorls of 3 tepals each [1 whorl of 6]; tepals usually large, showy, distinct or connate in tube; stamens 3 [2], inserted at base of outer tepals or in tube, symmetrically arranged or unilateral, arcuate [declinate]; filaments distinct or partly to completely connate, sometimes weak, unable to support anthers; anthers with 2 pollen sacs, extrorse, occasionally latrorse, usually dehiscing longitudinally [rarely apically]; ovary inferior [superior in Tasmanian Isophysis], 3-locular [1-locular]; placentation axile [parietal]; ovules 2–few, anatropous; style single, filiform at least proximally, usually 3-branched or 3-lobed, branches either filiform, distally expanded, sometimes each divided in distal 1/2, stigmatic toward apices, or branches thickened, or flattened, petaloid, stigmas then abaxial below apices. Fruits capsular, loculicidal, rarely indehiscent, firm to cartilaginous, occasionally woody. Seeds globose to angular (prismatic) or discoid, sometimes broadly winged; seed coat usually dry (rarely fleshy); endosperm hard, with reserves of hemicellulose, oil, and protein; embryo small.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Herbs perennial (or shrubs or annuals), with rhizomes, bulbs, or corms. Leaves alternate, often 2-ranked, often oriented edgewise to aerial stem, usually sword-shaped to linear, parallel veined, base sheathing. Inflorescence sometimes a spike or reduced to a solitary flower, more often of monochasial, umbellate cymes, each enclosed in 2 opposed bracts (spathes) and termed a rhipidium, which may be solitary and terminal or numerous and variously arranged in racemes or panicles; bracts 1 to several. Flowers bisexual, showy, usually actinomorphic (often zygomorphic elsewhere). Perianth segments 6, in 2 whorls, inner and outer ones equal or differing in size and/or color; tube filiform or trumpet-shaped. Stamens (2 or)3; anthers extrorse. Ovary inferior (or superior), 3-loculed; ovules few to many; placentation axile. Style with filiform, slender, or petaloid branches. Fruit a loculicidal capsule. Seeds with or without aril and wings.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Seeds with copious endosperm

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Capsule loculicidally dehiscent by valves

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    • 1
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    Perianth petaloid, withering and persisting for some time; segments or lobes 6, 2-seriate, subequal and similar or different

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    Stamens 3, opposite the outer perianth-lobes; anthers 2-locular, opening by slits

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    • 1
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    Ovary inferior, 3-locular with axile, or 1-locular with parietal placentas; style 3-lobed, lobes sometimes petaloid

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    • 1
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    Ovules numerous

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    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Perennial herbs with underground rhizomes, corms or bulbs

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    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Leaves often crowded at the base of the stem, mostly linear, flattened at the sides, sheathing at the base and equitant

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, with a straight perianth-tube or the tube curved, or completely zygomorphic, usually ornamental and often mottled or spotted

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    Perennial herbs, evergreen or dying back each year to a persistent stock, with rhizomes bulbs or corms, rarely annual herbs, or shrubs with a woody caudex

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    Flowering stems aerial or subterranean, simple or branched, terete, angled or winged

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    • 2
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    Leaves basal and cauline; sometimes the lower 2–3 membranous below, entirely sheathing, not reaching much above the ground (thus cataphylls); foliage leaves with open or closed sheaths, the blades mostly distichous, usually equitant and ensiform, parallel-veined, plane, plicate or rarely terete; or leaves bifacial and channelled to flat in a few genera

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 2
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    Inflorescence either composed of umbellate clusters (rhipidia) enclosed in opposed leafy to dry bracts (spathes) with flowers usually pedicellate (to more or less sessile) and each subtended by one bract; or inflorescence spicate with flowers sessile, each subtended by two opposed bracts; or occasionally flowers solitary

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 2
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    Fruit a loculicidal capsule, rarely indehiscent; seeds globose to angular or discoid, sometimes broadly winged, usually dry (rarely fleshy), endosperm hard, with reserves of hemicellulose, oil and protein, embryo small

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Stamens 3, inserted at the base of the outer tepals, or in the perianth tube, symmetrically disposed or unilateral and arcuate (or declinate); filaments filiform, free or partly to completely united; anthers 2-thecous, extrorse, usually dehiscing longitudinally

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Ovary inferior (but superior in the Tasmanian Isophysis), trilocular with axile placentation (rarely unilocular with parietal placentation), ovules usually anatropous, many to few; style filiform, usually 3-branched, sometimes simple or 3-lobed, style branches either filiform or distally expanded, sometimes each divided in the upper half, stigmatic towards the apices, or the branches thickened or flattened and petaloid, the stigmas then abaxial below the apices

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Flowers hermaphrodite, with a petaloid perianth of two equal or unequal whorls of tepals (rarely one whorl absent), actinomorphic or zygomorphic

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 2
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    Tepals usually large and showy, free virtually to the base, or united in a perianth tube

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Leaves basal and cauline, sometimes the lower 2-3 membranous below, entirely sheathing, not reaching much above the ground (thus cataphylls); foliage leaves with open or closed sheaths, the blades mostly distichous and equitant (the base of one leaf clasping the base of the one opposite, this in turn clasping the base of the next), oriented edgewise to the stem (unifacial), parallel-veined, plane, plicate or rarely terete; or oriented with the adaxial surface facing the stem (bifacial) and channelled to flat in a few genera

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Perennial evergreen or seasonal herbs, with rhizomes, bulbs or corms, rarely annuals or shrubs with a woody caudex

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Stamens 3, inserted at the base of the outer tepals, or in the tube, symmetrically disposed or unilateral and arcuate (or declinate); filaments filiform, free or partly to completely united; anthers 2-thecous, extrorse, usually dehiscing longitudinally

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Ovary inferior (but superior in the Tasmanian Isophysis ), 3-locular with axile placentation (rarely 1-locular with parietal placentation); ovules anatropous, few-many; style filiform, usually 3-branched, sometimes simple, or 3-lobed, the branches either filiform or distally expanded, sometimes each divided in the upper half, stigmatic towards the apices, or the branches thickened or flattened and petaloid, the stigmas then abaxial below the apices

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Flowers hermaphrodite, with a petaloid perianth of 2 equal or unequal whorls (rarely one whorl absent), actinomorphic or zygomorphic

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Tepals usually large and showy, free virtually to the base or united in a tube

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Flowering stems aerial or subterranean, simple or branched, terete, angled or winged

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence either composed of umbellate clusters (rhipidia) enclosed in opposed leafy to dry bracts (spathes) with flowers usually pedicellate (to ± sessile) and each subtended by one bract; or a spike of sessile flowers, each subtended by 2 opposed bracts; or occasionally flowers solitary

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Seeds globose to angular or discoid, sometimes broadly winged, usually dry (rarely fleshy); endosperm hard, with reserves of hemicellulose, oil and protein; embryo small

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Fruit a loculicidal capsule, rarely indehiscent

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Distribution

    Besides the above indigenous genera, several others are cultivated and some are more or less naturalized, such as monbretia (Crocosmia aurea Planch.) on Cameroon Mt., Neomarica caerulea (Lodd.) Sprague, N. gracilis (Herb.) Sprague and Trimezia martinicensis (Jacq.) Herb. All are from the New World

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Arber, A. 1921. The leaf structure of the Iridaceae. Ann. Bot. (Oxford) 35: 301–336. Goldblatt, P. 1975. Revision of the bulbous Iridaceae of North America. Brittonia 27: 373–385. Goldblatt, P. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of Iridaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: 607–627. Goldblatt, P. 1991. An overview of the systematics, phylogeny and biology of the southern African Iridaceae. Contr. Bolus Herb. 13: 1–74. Reeves, G. et al. 2001. Molecular systematics of Iridaceae: Evidence from four plastid DNA regions. Amer. J. Bot. 88: 2074–2087.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Iris Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Iridaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).