Gentianaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 141. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Gentianaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000243. Accessed on: 19 Jan 2020'

General Information

Herbs [shrubs or small trees], annual, biennial, or perennial. Stems ascending, erect, or twining. Leaves opposite, less often alternate or whorled, simple, base connate; stipules absent. Inflorescences simple or complex cymes, sometimes reduced to sessile clusters, often in a thyrse or 1-flowered. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual, 4 or 5 (or 6-8)[-12]-merous. Calyx tubular, obconic, campanulate, or rotate, lobes joined at least basally. Corolla tubular, obconic, salverform, funnelform, campanulate, or rotate, rarely with basal spurs; lobes overlapping to right or rarely valvate in bud; plicae (extensions of the corolla tube between the lobes) present or absent. Stamens inserted on corolla tube or occasionally at sinus between corolla lobes, alternate with lobes; anthers basifixed or dorsifixed, 2-locular. Nectaries absent or attached to ovary base or corolla. Ovary usually 1-locular at least apically, rarely 2-locular due to intrusion of a lamellate placenta into locular cavity. Fruit a 2-valved capsule, rarely a berry. Seeds many or rarely few, small; endosperm abundant [scant in saprophytic genera].

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Leaves opposite, often connate at the base; stipules absent

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    Annual or perennial herbs

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    Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic or rarely zygomorphic

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    Calyx tubular or of separate sepals, imbricate

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    Corolla contorted

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    Seeds with copious endosperm and small embryo

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    Fruit usually a capsule

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    Disk present or absent

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    Stamens the same number as the corolla-lobes and alternating with them, inserted on the corolla; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise

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    Ovules often numerous

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    Ovary superior, mostly 1-celled with 2 parietal placentas, sometimes 2-celled with the placentas adnate to the septa; style simple

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    Inflorescence a terminal cyme, often paniculate, or axillary and fasciculate or, sometimes, reduced to solitary flowers

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    Flowers hermaphrodite or sometimes unisexual, actinomorphic or rarely zygomorphic, subsessile or pedicellate

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    Calyx tubular of (2)4–5, or rarely 6–12 sepals (lobes), imbricate (sometimes valvate)

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    Corolla gamopetalous; tube campanulate, funnel-shaped or cylindric, sometimes with a constricted limb, 3–5(12)-lobed, usually contorted or rarely imbricate, often with scales or nectary-pits within the tube

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    Stamens as many as the corolla lobes, alternating with them, inserted on the corolla; filaments usually dilated at the base; anthers 2-thecous, with distinct parallel cells dehiscing lengthwise, sometimes twisted, or seldom with apical pores

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    Leaves simple, opposite (in the Flora Zambesiaca area), or seldom whorled, only rarely alternate, exstipulate, sometimes reduced and scale-like

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    Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes suffrutescent, rarely shrubs or small trees, erect to straggling, terrestrial or aquatic, rarely parasites or saprophytes, usually glabrous

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    Ovary superior, uni- or bilocular (through the intrusion of the cell walls), usually with many ovules in each cell, with parietal or, in the bilocular ovaries, axile placentation; style simple or rarely absent; stigma entire or bilobed or divided into 2 filiform branches (rarely stigmas deccurent along the sides of the ovary when style wanting)

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    Disk obsolete or annular or of 5 hypogynous glands

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    Seeds usually numerous, subglobose, polyhedric to ovoid-ellipsoid, smooth, wrinkled, or reticulate-faveolate or sometimes frilled; testa crustaceous or membranous; embryo small, straight and elongate, embedded in the copious oily albumen

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    Fruit usually capsular and dehiscent septicidally bivalved or rarely berry-like and splitting irregularly

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    Gynoecium bicarpellate, with nectary-disk or glands, superior, 1-celled, placentae parietal, often intruding, rarely 2-celled with axile placentae or 1-loculed with free-central placenta, ovules few to ± numerous; style terminal with entire, two-lobed or papillose stigma or rarely with decurrent stigma (>i>Lomatogonium)

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    Fruit a septicidal capsule, rarely a berry

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    Corolla lobes united, persistent or deciduous, often with scales or nectary-pits within the ± elongate tube, contorted or imbricate

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    Stamens epipetalous, as many as and alternating with the corolla lobes; anthers with longitudinal slits, rarely with terminal pores (in >i>Exacum)

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    Flowers bisexual, regular, 3–5(–12)-merous, often heterostylous

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    Calyx lobes united or ± free, persistent, with a single or more rows of colleters at the base

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    Leaves simple, opposite, seldom whorled or alternate (some Swertia spp.), scale-like in mycotrophic species (>i>Voyria, >i>Voyriella), entire; stipules 0

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    Flowers solitary or inflorescences cymose (rarely racemose), crowded into fascicles or ± globose heads, rarely verticillate (>i>Enicostema)

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    Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes achlorophyllous & mycotrophic, or shrubs or rarely small trees, with colourless bitter iridoid compounds

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    Stems decumbent to erect, simple or branched

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    Seeds with small, straight embryo & copious oily endosperm or undifferentiated embryo & scanty endosperm in mycotrophic genera

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    Cytology

    Chromosome number: x = 5–13 (and multiples thereof)

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    Included Genus

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Gentianaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).