Cupressaceae Gray
  • Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl. 2: 222, 225. 1822. (10 Jan 1822)
  • Redwood or Cypress Family


This taxon is accepted by World Flora Online consortium
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Trees or shrubs evergreen (usually deciduous in Taxodium ), generally resinous and aromatic, monoecious (usually dioecious in Juniperus ). Bark fibrous and furrowed (smooth or exfoliating in plates in some Cupressus and Juniperus species). Lateral branches well developed, similar to leading shoots, twigs terete, angled, or flattened dorsiventrally (with structurally distinct lower and upper surfaces; Thuja , Calocedrus ), densely clothed by scalelike leaves or by decurrent leaf bases; longest internodes to 1 cm; buds undifferentiated and inconspicuous (except in Sequoia ). Roots fibrous to woody (bearing aboveground "knees" in Taxodium ). Leaves simple, usually persisting 3--5 years and shed with lateral shoots (cladoptosic) (shed annually in Taxodium ), alternate and spirally arranged but sometimes twisted so as to appear 2-ranked, or opposite in 4 ranks, or whorled, deltate-scalelike to linear, decurrent, sessile or petioled; adult leaves appressed or spreading, often differing between lateral and leading shoots (twigs heterophyllous), sometimes strongly dimorphic on each twig ( Thuja , Calocedrus ) with lateral scale-leaf pairs conspicuously keeled; juvenile leaves linear, flattened, spreading; often with solitary abaxial resin gland; resin canal present. Pollen cones maturing and shed annually, solitary, terminal (rarely in clusters of 2--5, axillary in Juniperus communis ; usually in terminal panicles in Taxodium ), simple, spheric to oblong; sporophylls overlapping, bearing 2--10 abaxial microsporangia (pollen sacs); pollen spheric, not winged. Seed cones maturing in 1--2 seasons, shed with short shoots or persisting indefinitely on long-lived axes (shattering at maturity in Taxodium ), compound, solitary, terminal (rarely in clusters of 2--5, axillary in Juniperus communis ); scales overlapping or abutting, fused to subtending bracts with only bract apex sometimes free; each scale-bract complex peltate, oblong or cuneate, at maturity woody or fleshy, with 1--20 erect (inverted with age in Sequoia and Sequoiadendron ), adaxial ovules. Seeds 1--20 per scale, not winged or with 2--3 symmetric or asymmetric wings; aril lacking; cotyledons 2--9.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Trees or shrubs evergreen, monoecious or dioecious. Leaves decussate or in whorls of 3, scalelike and then often dimorphic with flattened facial leaves and keeled lateral leaves, or needlelike particularly in juvenile plants, often with an abaxial resin gland. Pollen cones terminal or axillary, solitary, maturing and shed annually; microsporophylls 6-16, decussate or whorled, each bearing (2 or)3-6(-9) pollen sacs; pollen wingless. Seed cones usually terminal, solitary, globose, ovoid, or oblong, dehiscent or indehiscent when mature in 1st or 2nd(or 3rd) year; cone scales developing after ovules originate in bract axils; bracts almost completely enveloped by cone scales, free only at apex; ovules 1-numerous per bract axil, erect; cone scales of mature cones 3-16, flat or peltate, woody, ± leathery, or succulent, 1-20-seeded. Seeds winged or not; wings derived from seed coat. Cotyledons usually 2, rarely 3-6. Germination epigeal.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Staminate strobili in small cones, terminal or on short lateral shoots; scales few, subpeltate, bearing 2-many pollen sacs

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Leaves on adult plants scale-like, appressed and apparently decussate; on juveniles subulate, spreading and spirally arranged or irregularly disposed

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Trees or shrubs, monoecious or dioecious

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Mature female strobilus usually a cone with woody peltate persistent opposite scales, sometimes a berry-like fruit with fleshy confluent scarcely distinguishable scales

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Ovules 1-many per scale, erect

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Female strobili of 1–12 scales; scales woody or fleshy

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Burns, R. M. and B. H. Honkala. 1990. Silvics of North America. 1. Conifers. Washington. [Agric. Handb. 654.] Canadian Forestry Service. 1983. Reproduction of Conifers. Forest. Techn. Pub. Canad. Forest. Serv. 31. Eckenwalder, J. E. 1976. Re-evaluation of Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae: A proposed merger. Madroño 23: 237--256. Farjon, A. 1990. A Bibliography of Conifers. Königstein. [Regnum Veg. 122.] Hosie, R. C. 1969. Native Trees of Canada, ed. 7. Ottawa. Pp. 83--95. Krajina, V. J., K. Klinka, and J. Worrall. 1982. Distribution and Ecological Characteristics of Trees and Shrubs of British Columbia. Vancouver. Little, E. L. Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States Trees (Native and Naturalized). Washington. Pp. 33--36. [Agric. Handb. 541.] Rehder, A. J. 1949. Bibliography of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the Cooler Temperate Regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Jamaica Plain. Silba, J. 1986. Encyclopaedia Coniferae. Phytologia Mem. 8: 1--127.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Redwood or Cypress Family

     Information From

    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • A Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Cupressaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • D CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).