Combretaceae R.Br.
  • Prodr. 351. 1810. (27 Mar 1810)


This taxon is accepted by World Flora Online consortium
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Trees, shrubs, or woody lianas, evergreen or deciduous, rarely subherbaceous. Indumentum of simple hairs, glandular hairs, or multicellular hairs secreting calcium oxalate and forming scales or present beneath cuticle and making leaf blade surface verruculose and sometimes translucent dotted. Leaves opposite, subopposite, whorled, spiraled, or alternate, usually petiolate, estipulate; petiole sometimes persistent and thornlike; leaf blade simple, margin entire or subentire, sometimes toothed, glands often present between crenations of proximal margin and at base or on petiole. Inflorescences terminal, axillary, or extra-axillary, spikes, branched spikes, racemes, panicles, or sometimes capitula, bracteate. Flowers usually regular, rarely slightly zygomorphic, usually bisexual, sometimes bisexual and male flowers present in same inflorescence. Receptacle surrounding and adnate to ovary and extended into a short or long calyx tube dilated distally (together termed "calyx tube" in this treatment); lobes 4 or 5(-8), valvate in bud, persistent or deciduous, sometimes almost absent. Petals 4 or 5, inserted near mouth of calyx tube, imbricate or valvate in bud, conspicuous or not, or absent. Stamens usually 2 × as many as calyx lobes in 2 series, inserted inside distal part of calyx tube, included in or exserted from calyx tube; filaments incurved in bud; anthers dorsifixed, usually versatile, dehiscing longitudinally. Disk usually present, intrastaminal, hairy or glabrous. Ovary inferior, 1-loculed; ovules 2(-6), pendulous, anatropous, usually only 1 developing; style 1, simple, usually free from distal part of calyx tube, subulate to filiform; stigma capitate or inconspicuous. Fruit a pseudocarp, very variable in shape and size, fleshy or dry, 1-seeded, usually indehiscent, often longitudinally 2-5-winged, -ridged, or -angled; endocarp not or at least partly sclerenchymatous. Cotyledons convolute, folded, or twisted. Endosperm absent.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Leaves opposite, alternate or rarely verticillate, simple, exstipulate

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Trees or shrubs, often scandent

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Calyx-tube adnate to the ovary; limb 4–8-fid or -lobed, lobes valvate

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Flowers spicate or racemose, mostly small, hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Fruit often winged, rarely dehiscent

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Stamens 4–10, rarely more; filaments inflexed in bud; anthers versatile, didymous, opening lengthwise by slits

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Petals 4–5 or none, rarely many, small, imbricate or valvate

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Ovary inferior, rarely half-inferior, 1-celled; style simple; ovules 2–6, suspended from the apex of the ovary by slender funicles

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Seed pendulous, without endosperm; embryo with convolute, plicate or contorted cotyledons and small radicle

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Disk epigynous

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Disk intrastaminal, hairy or glabrous, sometimes inconspicuous or absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Style usually free (attached to the upper receptacle for part of its length in Quisqualis and a very few species of Combretum)

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Ovary inferior (semi-inferior in Strephonema), 1-locular with usually 2 (up to 6) pendulous anatropous ovules of which only 1 usually develops

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Fruit (a pseudocarp) very variable in size and shape, fleshy or dry, stipitate or sessile, usually indehiscent (occasionally tardily dehiscent) often variously winged or ridged, 1-seeded

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 2
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    Albumen absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Cotyledons 2 (rarely 3 or 4) occasionally with their petioles connate almost to the apex

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 2
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    Petals 4 or 5 (rarely more) or absent, conspicuous or sometimes very small, usually inserted near the mouth of the upper receptacle (but near the disk in Meiostemon)

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 2
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    Stamens usually twice as many as the sepals or petals but occasionally the same number (4 in Meiostemon), borne inside the upper receptacle with biseriate or more rarely uniseriate insertion (one whorl very rarely as staminodes), exserted or included; anthers dorsifixed, versatile (rarely adnate to the filaments, but not in our area)

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 2
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    Flowers bisexual or bisexual and male in the same inflorescence or very rarely dioecious, usually 4–5-merous, rarely slightly zygomorphic, in axillary or extra-axillary elongated or subcapitate spikes or racemes or in terminal or axillary panicles

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Receptacle (calyx-tube or hypanthium) usually in two distinct parts, the lower receptacle surrounding and adnate to the inferior (except in Strephonema from West Africa) ovary and upper receptacle usually produced beyond it to form a short or long tube (perhaps a true calyx-tube in Meiostemon) terminating in the sepals (calyx-lobes), the latter sometimes scarcely developed

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 2
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    Indumentum of unicellular compartmented (rarely non-compartmented) hairs, multicellular stalked glands and multicellular scales (in which the head consists of a multicellular plate only one cell thick)

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Leaves opposite, verticillate, spiral or alternate, exstipulate, simple and almost always entire (very rarely crenulate)

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Trees, shrubs, shrublets or climbers, rarely subherbaceous

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Sepals 4 or 5 (rarely 6 or 8) or almost absent, sometimes accrescent (Calycopteris in Asia)

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Disk intrastaminal, hairy or glabrous, sometimes inconspicuous or absent

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Petals 4 or 5, conspicuous to very small, or absent, usually inserted near the mouth of the upper receptacle

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Stamens usually twice as many as the sepals or petals (occasionally the same number, but not inE. Africa), biseriate or more rarely uniseriate, exserted or included in the upper receptacle; anthers versatile (rarely adnate to the filaments but not inE. Africa)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Receptacle (calyx-tube or hypanthium) usually in 2 distinct parts, the lower receptacle surrounding and adnate to the inferior (except in Strephonema from West Africa) ovary and the upper receptacle usually produced beyond it to form a short or long tube terminating in the sepals (calyx-lobes), the latter sometimes scarcely developed

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Sepals 4 or 5 (rarely 6 or 8) or almost absent, sometimes accrescent >i>(Calycopteris in Asia)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite, verticillate, spiral or alternate, exstipulate, simple and almost always entire (very rarely crenulate)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Flowers hermaphrodite or hermaphrodite and ? in the same inflorescence, usually 4–5-merous, rarely slightly zygomorphic, in axillary or extra-axillary spikes or racemes or in terminal or axillary panicles

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Cotyledons 2 (rarely 3), occasionally with their petioles connate almost to the apex

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Seeds without albumen

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Fruit very variable in size and shape, fleshy or dry, stipitate or sessile, usually indehiscent, often variously winged or ridged, 1-seeded

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Style usually free (attached to the upper receptacle for part of its length in >i>Quisqualis and a very few species of >i>Combretum); ovary inferior (semi-inferior in >i>Strephonema), 1-locular with usually 2 (up to 6) pendulous anatropous ovules of which only 1 usually develops

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Indumentum of unicellular compartmented (very rarely non-compartmented) hairs, multicellular stalked glands and multicellular scales (in which the head consists of a multicellular plate only one cell thick)

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Trees, shrubs, shrublets or climbers, very rarely subherbaceous

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Combretaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).