Capparaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 242. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)


This taxon is accepted by World Flora Online consortium
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Shrubs or trees (deciduous or evergreen); spines absent (usually without thorns except Atamisquea); glabrous or puberulent with stellate trichomes or lepidote scales (producing glucosinolates). Stems erect or spreading; sparsely to profusely branched. Leaves alternate and distichous or spirally arranged, simple [palmately compound]; venation pinnate; stipules caducous, scalelike or absent; petioles present (pulvinus absent, nectaries present or absent, [petiolar spines present]); blade margins entire. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, usually racemose, sometimes corymbose or flowers solitary; pedunculate; bud scales usually persistent; bracts absent. Pedicels present. Flowers bisexual (sometimes appearing unisexual), actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic, rotate to crateriform, campanulate, or urceolate; perianth and androecium hypogynous; sepals usually persistent (deciduous in Quadrella incana), 4, distinct; petals 4, attached directly to receptacle, imbricate, distinct, equal; intrastaminal nectary-discs or glands present or absent; stamens 6-250; filaments distinct, glabrous or pubescent; anthers dehiscing by longitudinal slits, pollen shed in single grains, binucleate, commonly tricolporate; pistil 1; ovary 1-carpellate, 2-locular; placentation parietal; ovules anatropous, bitegmic; style 1, (straight, relatively short and thick); stigma 1, capitate, unlobed. Fruits capsules or berries, valvate, elongate, dehiscent or not by 2 lateral valves (stipitate from elongation of gynophore). Seeds 1-38 or many, usually tan to yellowish brown or brown, sometimes green; arillate or not; endosperm scanty or absent, sometimes a persistent perisperm present; cotyledons incumbent to accumbent, (radicle-hypocotyl relatively short and conical). x = 8, 10.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Shrubs, trees, or woody vines, evergreen (deciduous in some Crateva), with branched or simple trichomes. Stipules spinelike, small, or absent. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple or compound with 3[-9] leaflets. Inflorescences axillary or superaxillary, racemose, corymbose, subumbellate, or paniculate, 2-10-flowered or 1-flowered in leaf axil. Flowers bisexual or sometimes unisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, often with caducous bracteoles. Sepals 4(-8), in 1 or 2 whorls, equal or not, distinct or basally connate, rarely outer whorl or all sepals connected and forming a cap. Petals (0-)4(-8), alternating with sepals, distinct, with or without a claw. Receptacle flat or tapered, often extended into an androgynophore, with nectar gland. Stamens (4-)6 to ca. 200; filaments on receptacle or androgynophore apex, distinct, inflexed or spiraled in bud; anthers basifixed (dorsifixed in Stixis), 2-celled, introrse, longitudinally dehiscent. Pistil 2(-8)-carpellate; gynophore ± as long as stamens; ovary ovoid and terete (linear and ridged in Borthwickia), 1-loculed, with 2 to several parietal placentae (3-6-loculed with axile placentation in Borthwickia and Stixis); ovules several to many, 2-tegmic; style obsolete or highly reduced, sometimes elongated and slender; stigma capitate or not obvious, rarely 3-branched. Fruit a berry or capsule, globose, ellipsoid, or linear, with tough indehiscent exocarp or valvately dehiscent. Seeds 1 to many per fruit, reniform to polygonal, smooth or with various sculpturing; embryo curved; endosperm small or absent.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Ovary usually borne on a more or less elongated gynophore, usually 1-locular with 2 parietal placentas but sometimes 2-locular by the intrusion of the placentas or multi-locular; ovules 4–?

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Stamens 5–? usually borne on a short or elongated androphore, sometimes accompanied by staminodes

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Petals 4 (0, 5, 6 or more)

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Sepals 3–4 (5)

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Receptacle cupular, funnel-shaped or cylindric with an entire, undulate, dentate or fimbriate margin, sometimes very short

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic, bisexual or unisexual by abortion, usually 4-merous, hypogynous

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Seeds reniform or subglobose, without endosperm; embryo usually curved

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Fruit a capsule or a berry

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Style short or absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Herbs, shrubs, trees or lianes

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, simple or digitately 3––9-foliolate; stipules absent or rudimentary, rarely spiny

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences terminal or axillary, of racemes, corymbs or panicles, or flowers solitary and axillary

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes scandent, glabrous, pubescent, glandular or scabrous, occasionally lepidote

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stipules present, minute or spiny, caducous or persistent

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple or digitately 2–7-foliolate; leaflets entire, rarely serrate, dentate or panduriform

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemose, often corymbose, or the flowers solitary or fascicled, often showy

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Flowers hermaphrodite or very rarely dioecious, regular or irregular

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Sepals 4–8, free or variously connate, valvate, imbricate or open in aestivation; receptacle cupular, funnel-shaped or cylindric, with an entire, undulate, dentate or fimbriate margin, sometimes very short

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Petals 4–16 or absent, sessile or clawed

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stamens few to many, usually borne on a short or elongated androphore, all fertile or some without anthers; filaments free, equal or unequal, filiform; anthers 2-celled, oblong, longitudinally dehiscent

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Ovary sessile or more usually supported on a gynophore of varying length, 1- locular with parietal placentas or divided by spurious dissepiments into 2 or more locules; ovules few to many

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Fruit a capsule or berry, mostly oblong-cylindrical, globose or torulose, few- to many-seeded, rarely 1- seeded

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Seeds usually reniform or angular; endosperm none or scanty; embryo arcuate or incurved; cotyledons folded or convolute

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    A medium-sized family of the tropics and subtropics, well represented in Africa and forming a conspicuous element of the dry-country flora

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Ernst, W. R. 1963b. The genera of Capparidaceae and Moringaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 44: 81-95. Hall, J. C., H. H. Iltis, and K. J. Sytsma. 2004. Molecular phylogenetics of core Brassicales, placement of orphan genera Emblingia, Forchhammeria, Tirania, and character evolution. Syst. Bot. 29: 654-669. Hall, J. C., K. J. Sytsma, and H. H. Iltis. 2002. Phylogeny of Capparaceae and Brassicaceae based on chloroplast sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 1826-1842. Kers, L. E. 2003. Capparaceae. In: K. Kubitzky et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 9+ vols. Berlin etc. Vol. 5, pp. 36-56.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Capparaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).