Cannabaceae Martinov
  • Tekhno-Bot. Slovar. 99. 1820. (3 Aug 1820)
  • Hemp Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Cannabaceae Martinov. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000109. Accessed on: 26 Jan 2020'

General Information

Herbs , annual or perennial, taprooted or rhizomatous, erect or twining, aromatic, pubescent with small glands and hairs, hairs with or without cystoliths (structures within cells with basal calcium carbonate concretions or crystals). Stems usually branched, usually ridged or furrowed. Leaves decussate proximally, often alternate distally, simple to palmately lobed or compound, petiolate; stipules persistent, triangular. Leaf blade: margins serrate. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, bracteate; staminate inflorescences compound cymes or panicles, loose, erect or somewhat pendent; pistillate inflorescences spikes, pseudospikes, or racemes. Flowers unisexual, staminate and pistillate usually on different plants, when on same plants (in some populations and cultivars), then staminate flowers produced before pistillate flowers, transitional-bisexual flowers sometimes occurring. Staminate flowers 20-200+, pedicellate; sepals 5, hypogynous, greenish or whitish; stamens 5, hypogynous, opposite sepals; anthers dehiscing longitudinally and basipetally. Pistillate flowers 10-50, often paired, pairs often interpreted as cymes, subsessile, tightly covered or loosely subtended by bract or bracteole; perianth a thin undivided layer adhering to ovary, obscure; pistil 1, usually 2-carpellate; ovary superior, 1-locular; ovule 1 per locule; style short, apical; stigma 2-branched, long, filiform. Fruits achenes, crustaceous, covered loosely or tightly by persistent, accrescent perianth. Seeds fleshy; endosperm little; embryo curved or coiled.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Herbs, annual or perennial, erect or twining, dioecious or sometimes monoecious, often with cystoliths (a hard calcium carbonate structure at base of a hair). Stems furrowed or winged. Stipules free. Leaves alternate or opposite, palmately lobed or compound, sometimes simple. Male inflorescences a bracteate cymose panicle. Male flowers: pedicellate; sepals 5, free; petals absent; stamens 5, opposite sepals; filaments short; anthers 2-loculed, dehiscent by longitudinal slits. Female inflorescences a bracteate spicate cyme much reduced in Cannabis, pendent or erect. Female flowers: sessile; calyx appressed to ovary, membranous; petals absent; ovary 1-loculed; ovule solitary, pendulous from locule apex; style 2-parted, branches filiform. Fruit an achene, covered by persistent calyx; endosperm fleshy; embryo curved or spirally involute.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Male paniculate; perianth 5-partite with imbricate segments; stamens 5, opposite the tepals, the anthers straight, erect in bud, 2-thecous, at first dehiscing by apical oval pores but soon dehiscing lengthwise; vestigial ovary absent

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    Flowers mostly dioecious, axillary, wind-pollinated

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fruit an achene covered by the persistent perianth; endosperm sparse, fleshy and oily; embryo curved or spirally coiled

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    Female ± sessile, crowded or strobilate, tightly covered or loosely subtended by small or large conspicuous persistent bracteoles; bracts also present; perianth membranous, entire, investing the ovary; ovary superior, sessile, 1-locular with 1 pendulous anatropous ovule; style terminal, short, with 2 long filiform stigmas

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    Annual or perennial erect or climbing herbs without latex

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Leaves alternate or opposite, simple, undivided or palmately lobed or divided into separate leaflets; petioles well developed; stipules present, free or fused

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Inflorescences numerous and axillary, flowers dioecious and wind-pollinated

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    • Source: [
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    Male inflorescences paniculate, flowers with perianth uniseriate, 5-lobed, imbricate; stamens 5, opposite the perianth lobes, anthers straight, erect in bud, 2-thecous, dehiscing at first by apical pores but soon also lengthwise; pistillode absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Female inflorescences strobilate, flowers ± sessile, crowded, tightly enclosed or loosely subtended by small or large persistent bracteoles; bracts present; perianth membranaceous, entire, investing the ovary; ovary superior, sessile, 1-locular; ovule 1, pendulous, anatropous; style terminal, short; stigmas 2, long filiform

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Fruit an achene covered by the persistent perianth; endosperm sparse, fleshy and oily; embryo curved or spirally coiled

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Herbs, annual or perennial, erect or climbing, without latex

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Leaves alternate or opposite, petiolate, simple and undivided to palmately lobed or digitately compound; stipules free or fused

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    Distribution

    A family of only 2 genera occurring naturally in the temperate parts of the northern hemisphere, formerly included in either Urticaceae or >i>Moraceae. The number of species is in dispute; >i>Cannabis is usually considered to be monotypic but a second species >i>C. ruderalis Janisch has been described; >i>Humulus is usually considered to contain 2 species although 3–4 have been claimed. Although small the family is of considerable economic importance, >i>Humulus being used to flavour beer and >i>Cannabis to produce the fibre hemp and the drug variously known as bhang, dagga, hashish, pot, marijuana and Indian hemp. A very full account of the family and generic characteristics, together with an extensive bibliography, is given by N. G. Miller (Journ. Arn. Arb. 51: 185–203 (1970))

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Miller, N. G. 1970. The genera of the Cannabaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 51: l85-203.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Hemp Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Cannabaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).