Butomaceae Mirb.
  • Hist. Nat. Pl. 8: 194. 1804.
  • Flowering- Rrush Family


This taxon is accepted by World Flora Online consortium
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Herbs, perennial, rhizomatous, stemless, glabrous; sap clear. Roots not septate. Leaves basal, emersed or rarely submersed, sessile, sheathing somewhat proximally; blade with lade: translucent markings absent, basal lobes absent; venation parallel. Inflorescences scapose umbels, erect, bracteate. Flowers bisexual, hypogynous, pedicellate; tepals persistent, 6, in 2 series, scarious; stamens 9, distinct; anthers 4-loculed, dehiscing longitudinally; pistils 6, coherent proximally, 1-loculed; placentation laminar; ovules 50. Fruits follicles. Seeds: embryo straight; endosperm absent in mature seed.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Herbs, perennial, aquatic or of swamps, rhizomatous, usually with milky juice. Leaves usually emersed, basal, alternate, linear to orbicular, sheathing at base, sessile, triquetrous. Flowers hermaphroditic, in terminal, long pedunculate umbels within erect scapes, long pedicellate, with 3 free bracts. Perianth segments in 2 series, outer 3 usually sepal-like, inner 3 petal-like and usually thin and deciduous. Stamens 9, free; anthers basifixed, 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits. Carpels 6, connate at base; ovules numerous. Fruit a whorl of follicles; follicles with apical long beak. Seeds numerous, without endosperm; embryo straight.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Perennial, aquatic or swamp rhizomatous herbs, usually with milky juice

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Flowers solitary or umbellate

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Leaves ensiform to orbicular

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Perianth 2-seriate, the outer 3 usually sepal-like, imbricate, the inner 3 petal-like and usually thin and deciduous

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Fruits opening by the adaxial suture

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Seeds numerous, without endosperm

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Stamens hypogynous, 8-9 or numerous; anthers basifixed, opening laterally

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Carpels free; ovules numerous, scattered, on the reticulately branched parietal placentas

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Sepals 3, persistent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Petals 3, delicate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stamens 6–9–?; filaments flattened; anthers 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally and laterally

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Carpels superior, free or joined at the base, 6–?, in a whorl, unilocular; style terminal; stigma sessile; ovules ?, scattered over the ovary-wall on a reticulate placenta

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Perennial or annual, aquatic, swamp or marsh herbs, glabrous, usually lactiferous

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Rhizome short; roots short, fibrous

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Leaves erect or floating, basal; petiole with a sheathing base; leaf-blade entire, iridaceous, or lanceolate to orbicular with cuneate to truncate base and acute to rounded apex

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Inflorescence umbellate, rarely with solitary flowers; bracts 2 or 3; bracteoles several; flowers regular, bisexual

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Fruiting carpels finally dehiscing along the ventral suture; seeds ?, smooth, wrinkled or ridged, rarely slightly spiny, without endosperm; embryo horseshoe-shaped or straight

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Distribution

    A small family, confined to the tropics or subtropics except for Butomus L. which extends across Europe and Asia. The following genus is the only one which occurs in Africa

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Anderson, L. C., C. D. Zeis, and S. F. Alam. 1974. Phytogeography and possible origins of Butomus in North America. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 101: 292--296. Stuckey, R. L. 1968. Distributional history of Butomus umbellatus (flowering-rush) in the western Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair region. Michigan Bot. 7: 134--142. Stuckey, R. L. 1994. Map of the known distribution of Butomus (flowering- rush) in North America. In: W. R. Burk and R. L. Stuckey. 1994. Ronald L. Stuckey: His Roole in the Ohio Academy of Science. Chapel Hill. P. 85. Stuckey, R. L., G. Schneider, and M. L. Roberts. 1990. Butomus umbellatus L.: Notes from the German literature and North American field studies. Ohio J. Sci. 90(2): 5--6. Tomlinson, P. B. 1982. Helobiae (Alismatidae). In: C. R. Metcalfe, ed. 1960+. Anatomy of the Monoctotyledons. 8+ vols. Oxford. Vol. 7.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Included Genus

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Flowering- Rrush Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Butomaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).