Herbs, perennial, rhizomatous, stemless, glabrous; sap clear. Roots not septate. Leaves basal, emersed or rarely submersed, sessile, sheathing somewhat proximally; blade with lade: translucent markings absent, basal lobes absent; venation parallel. Inflorescences scapose umbels, erect, bracteate. Flowers bisexual, hypogynous, pedicellate; tepals persistent, 6, in 2 series, scarious; stamens 9, distinct; anthers 4-loculed, dehiscing longitudinally; pistils 6, coherent proximally, 1-loculed; placentation laminar; ovules 50. Fruits follicles. Seeds: embryo straight; endosperm absent in mature seed.
Herbs, perennial, aquatic or of swamps, rhizomatous, usually with milky juice. Leaves usually emersed, basal, alternate, linear to orbicular, sheathing at base, sessile, triquetrous. Flowers hermaphroditic, in terminal, long pedunculate umbels within erect scapes, long pedicellate, with 3 free bracts. Perianth segments in 2 series, outer 3 usually sepal-like, inner 3 petal-like and usually thin and deciduous. Stamens 9, free; anthers basifixed, 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits. Carpels 6, connate at base; ovules numerous. Fruit a whorl of follicles; follicles with apical long beak. Seeds numerous, without endosperm; embryo straight.
Perennial, aquatic or swamp rhizomatous herbs, usually with milky juice
Perianth 2-seriate, the outer 3 usually sepal-like, imbricate, the inner 3 petal-like and usually thin and deciduous
Fruits opening by the adaxial suture
Seeds numerous, without endosperm
Stamens hypogynous, 8-9 or numerous; anthers basifixed, opening laterally
Carpels free; ovules numerous, scattered, on the reticulately branched parietal placentas
Stamens 6–9–?; filaments flattened; anthers 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally and laterally
Carpels superior, free or joined at the base, 6–?, in a whorl, unilocular; style terminal; stigma sessile; ovules ?, scattered over the ovary-wall on a reticulate placenta
Perennial or annual, aquatic, swamp or marsh herbs, glabrous, usually lactiferous
Rhizome short; roots short, fibrous
Leaves erect or floating, basal; petiole with a sheathing base; leaf-blade entire, iridaceous, or lanceolate to orbicular with cuneate to truncate base and acute to rounded apex
Inflorescence umbellate, rarely with solitary flowers; bracts 2 or 3; bracteoles several; flowers regular, bisexual
Anderson, L. C., C. D. Zeis, and S. F. Alam. 1974. Phytogeography and possible origins of Butomus in North America. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 101: 292--296. Stuckey, R. L. 1968. Distributional history of Butomus umbellatus (flowering-rush) in the western Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair region. Michigan Bot. 7: 134--142. Stuckey, R. L. 1994. Map of the known distribution of Butomus (flowering- rush) in North America. In: W. R. Burk and R. L. Stuckey. 1994. Ronald L. Stuckey: His Roole in the Ohio Academy of Science. Chapel Hill. P. 85. Stuckey, R. L., G. Schneider, and M. L. Roberts. 1990. Butomus umbellatus L.: Notes from the German literature and North American field studies. Ohio J. Sci. 90(2): 5--6. Tomlinson, P. B. 1982. Helobiae (Alismatidae). In: C. R. Metcalfe, ed. 1960+. Anatomy of the Monoctotyledons. 8+ vols. Oxford. Vol. 7.
|Flowering- Rrush Family|