Brassicaceae Burnett
  • Outlines Bot. 854, 1093, 1123. 1835. (Feb 1835)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Brassicaceae Burnett. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000082. Accessed on: 14 Aug 2020'

General Information

Herbs or subshrubs [shrubs or, rarely, lianas or trees], annual, biennial, or perennial; usually terrestrial, rarely submerged aquatics; with pungent watery juice; scapose or not; pubescent or glabrous, usually without papillae or tubercles (multicellular glandular papillae or tubercles present in Bunias, Chorispora, and Parrya); taprooted or rhizomatous (rarely stoloniferous), caudex simple or branched, sometimes woody, rhizomes slender or thick. Trichomes unicellular, simple, stalked, or sessile; forked, stellate, dendritic, malpighiaceous (medifixed, 2-fid, appressed), or peltate and scalelike, eglandular. Stems (absent in Idahoa, sometimes Leavenworthia) usually erect, sometimes ascending, descending, prostrate, decumbent, or procumbent; branched or unbranched. Leaves (sometimes persistent) cauline usually present, basal present or not (sometimes rhizomal present in Cardamine), rosulate or not, usually alternate (sometimes opposite or whorled in Cardamine angustata, C. concatenata, and C. diphylla and in Lunaria annua; sometimes subopposite in C. dissecta and C. maxima and in Draba ogilviensis), usually simple, rarely trifoliolate or pinnately, palmately, or bipinnately compound; stipules absent [with tiny, stipulelike glands at base of petioles and pedicels]; petiolate, sessile, or subsessile (sessile auriculate or not, sometimes amplexicaul); blade margins entire, dentate, crenate, sinuate, repand, or dissected. Inflorescences terminal, usually racemose (racemes often corymbose or paniculate) or flowers solitary on pedicels from axils of rosette leaves; bracts usually absent, sometimes present. Pedicels present (persistent or caducous [rarely geotropic]). Flowers bisexual [unisexual], usually actinomorphic (zygomorphic in Iberis, sometimes in Pennellia, Streptanthus, and Teesdalia); perianth and androecium hypogynous; sepals usually caducous, rarely persistent, 4, in 2 decussate pairs (1 pair lateral, 1 median), distinct [connate], not saccate or lateral (inner) pair (or, rarely, both pairs) saccate, forming tubular, campanulate, or urceolate calyx; petals 4, alternate with sepals, usually cruciform, rarely in abaxial and adaxial pairs, rarely rudimentary or absent, claw differentiated or not from blade, blade sometimes reduced and much smaller than well-developed claw, basally unappendaged, or, rarely, appendaged, margins entire or emarginate to 2-fid, rarely pinnatifid [fimbriate or filiform]; stamens (2 or 4) 6 [8-24], in 2 whorls, usually tetradynamous (lateral outer pair shorter than median inner 2 pairs), rarely equal in length or in 3 pairs of unequal length; filaments (slender, sometimes winged, appendaged, or toothed): median pairs usually distinct, rarely connate; anthers dithecal, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, pollen grains 3(-11)-colpate, trinucleate; nectar glands receptacular, variable in number, shape, size, and disposition around filament base, always present opposite bases of lateral filaments, median glands present or absent; disc absent; pistil 1, 2-carpellate; ovary 2-locular with false septum connecting 2 placentae, rarely 1-locular and eseptate, placentation usually parietal, rarely apical; gynophore usually absent; style 1, persistent [caducous], sometimes obsolete or absent; stigma capitate or conical, entire or 2-lobed, lobes spreading or connivent, sometimes decurrent, distinct or connate, rarely elongated into horns or spines; ovules 1-300 per ovary, anatropous or campylotropous, bitegmic, usually crassinucellate, rarely tenuinucellate. Fruits usually capsular, usually 2-valved ((3 or) 4(-6) in Rorippa barbareifolia, (2 or) 4 in Tropidocarpum capparideum), termed siliques if length 3+ times width, or silicles if length less than 3 times width, sometimes nutletlike, lomentaceous, samaroid, or schizocarpic and [with] without a c

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Herbs annual, biennial, or perennial, sometimes subshrubs or shrubs, with a pungent, watery juice. Eglandular trichomes unicellular, simple, stalked or sessile, 2- to many forked, stellate, dendritic, or malpighiaceous (medifixed, bifid, appressed), rarely peltate and scalelike; glandular trichomes multicellular, with uniseriate or multiseriate stalk. Stems erect, ascending, or prostrate, sometimes absent. Leaves exstipulate, simple, entire or variously pinnately dissected, rarely trifoliolate or pinnately, palmately, or bipinnately compound; basal leaf rosette present or absent; cauline leaves almost always alternate, rarely opposite or whorled, petiolate or sessile, sometimes absent. Inflorescence bracteate or ebracteate racemes, corymbs, or panicles, sometimes flowers solitary on long pedicels originating from axils of rosette leaves. Flowers hypogynous, mostly actinomorphic. Sepals 4, in 2 decussate pairs, free or rarely united, not saccate or lateral (inner) pair saccate. Petals 4, alternate with sepals, arranged in the form of a cross (cruciform; hence the earlier family name Cruciferae), rarely rudimentary or absent. Stamens 6, in 2 whorls, tetradynamous (lateral (outer) pair shorter than median (inner) 2 pairs), rarely equal or in 3 pairs of unequal length, sometimes stamens 2 or 4, very rarely 8-24; filaments slender, winged, or appendaged, median pairs free or rarely united; anthers dithecal, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Pollen grains 3-colpate, trinucleate. Nectar glands receptacular, highly diversified in number, shape, size, and disposition around base of filaments, always present opposite bases of lateral filaments, median glands present or absent. Pistil 2-carpelled; ovary superior, sessile or borne on a distinct gynophore, mostly 2-locular and with a false septum connecting 2 placentae; placentation parietal, rarely apical; ovules anatropous or campylotropous, bitegmic, 1 to many per locule. Fruit typically a 2-valved capsule, generally termed silique (siliqua) when length 3 × or more than width, or silicle (silicula) when length less than 3 × width, dehiscent or indehiscent, sometimes schizocarpic, nutletlike, lomentaceous, or samaroid, segmented or not, terete, angled, or flattened parallel to septum (latiseptate) or at a right angle to septum (angustiseptate); valves 2(or 3-6); replum (persistent placenta) rounded, rarely flattened or winged; septum complete, perforated, reduced to a rim, or lacking; style 1, distinct, obsolete, or absent; stigma capitate or conical, entire or 2-lobed, sometimes lobes decurrent and free or connate. Seeds without endosperm, uniseriately or biseriately arranged in each locule, aseriate when 1, winged or wingless, mucilaginous or not when wetted; cotyledons incumbent (embryo notorrhizal: radicle lying along back of 1 cotyledon), accumbent (embryo pleurorrhizal: radicle applied to margins of both cotyledons), or conduplicate (embryo orthoplocal: cotyledons folded longitudinally around radicle), rarely spirally coiled (embryo spirolobal). Germination epigeal.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Fruit usually a dehiscent silique or silicule (more rarely indehiscent or transversely or longitudinally jointed)

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Seeds 1 to numerous, with no or very little endosperm

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Annual, biennial or perennial herbs (rarely somewhat shrubby) with alternate (rarely opposite or verticillate) exstipulate, simple or compound leaves sometimes forming a basal rosette

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence usually racemose

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Flowers actinomorphic (except for the stamens) usually bisexual, hypogynous

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Stamens usually 6, tetradynamous (rarely fewer or numerous); anthers 2- (rarely 1-) thecous, opening lengthwise

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Ovary sessile (rarely stipitate), syncarpous of 2 carpels, 1-locular with 1–2 parietal placentas or divided into 2 chambers by a false septum

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Sepals 4, free, in two series, often somewhat saccate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Petals 4 (rarely fewer or absent)

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Ovary superior, sessile or stipitate, of seemingly 2 united carpels, divided into 2 “secondary” locules by a thin membranous septum (sometimes transversely locular); placentation parietal; ovules usually many, ana- or campylotropous; stigma bifid or connate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Fruit a bivalved dehiscent siliqua or silicula (see key), sometimes a nutlet, lomentum or otherwise constructed

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Seeds virtually devoid of endosperm, with cotyledons incumbent, accumbent or variously folded

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Sepals 4, free, imbricate, the inner ones quite often saccate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Petals 4 (rarely absent), free, usually equal, ± clawed, imbricate or contorted

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stamens 6, tetradynamous (rarely 4 or 2), usually free; anthers usually 2-thecous, opening lengthwise; pollen grains mostly 3-, 4- or multicolpate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Nectarial glands variously arranged at the filament-bases

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Herbs, sometimes subshrubs (very rarely small trees)

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, basal ones often in a rosette, not stipulate, ± petiolate, entire to variously divided

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences terminal or sometimes axillary racemes, in flower mostly condensed and often corymbose, in fruit elongate, usually ebracteate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic, hypogynous, 4-merous, heterochlamydous

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Al-Shehbaz, I. A. 1977. Protogyny in the Cruciferae. Syst. Bot. 2: 327-333. Al-Shehbaz, I. A. 1984. The tribes of Cruciferae (Brassicaceae) in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 65: 343-373. Al-Shehbaz, I. A. 1985. The genera of Brassiceae (Cruciferae; Brassicaceae) in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 66: 279-351. Al-Shehbaz, I. A. 1985b. The genera of Thelypodieae (Cruciferae; Brassicaceae) in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 66: 95-111. Al-Shehbaz, I. A. 1986. The genera of Lepidieae (Cruciferae; Brassicaceae) in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 67: 265-311. Al-Shehbaz, I. A. 1987. The genera of Alysseae (Cruciferae; Brassicaceae) in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 68: 185-240. Al-Shehbaz, I. A. 1988. The genera of Arabideae (Cruciferae; Brassicaceae) in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 69: 85-166. Al-Shehbaz, I. A. 1988b. The genera of Anchonieae (Cruciferae; Brassicaceae) in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 69: 193-212. Al-Shehbaz, I. A. 1988c. The genera of Sisymbrieae (Cruciferae; Brassicaceae) in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 69: 213-237. Al-Shehbaz, I. A., M. A. Beilstein, and E. A. Kellogg. 2006. Systematics and phylogeny of the Brassicaceae (Cruciferae): An overview. Pl. Syst. Evol. 259: 89-120. Al-Shehbaz, I. A., S. L. O’Kane, and R. A. Price. 1999. Generic placement of species excluded from Arabidopsis. Novon 9: 296-307. Al-Shehbaz, I. A. and S. I. Warwick. 2007. Two new tribes (Dontostemoneae and Malcolmieae) in the Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). Harvard Pap. Bot. 12: 429-433. Appel, O. and I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 2003. Cruciferae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 9+ vols. Berlin etc. Vol. 5, pp. 75-174. Bailey, C. D. et al. 2006. Toward a global phylogeny of the Brassicaceae. Molec. Biol. Evol. 23: 2142-2160. Bailey, C. D., R. A. Price, and J. J. Doyle. 2002. Systematics of the halimolobine Brassicaceae: Evidence from three loci and morphology. Syst. Bot. 27: 318-332. Bailey, C. D., I. A. Al-Shehbaz, and G. Rajanikanth. 2007. Generic limits in the tribe Halimolobeae and the description of the new genus Exhalimolobos (Brassicaceae). Syst. Bot. 32: 140-156. Beilstein, M. A., I. A. Al-Shehbaz, and E. A. Kellogg. 2006. Brassicaceae phylogeny and trichome evolution. Amer. J. Bot. 93: 607-619. Beilstein, M. A., I. A. Al-Shehbaz, S. Mathews, and E. A. Kellogg. 2008. Brassicaceae phylogeny inferred from phytochrome A and ndhF sequence data: Tribes and trichomes revisited. Amer. J. Bot. 95: 1307-1327. Bowman, J. L. 2006. Molecules and morphology: Comparative developmental genetics of the Brassicaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 259: 199-215. German, D. A. and I. A. Al-Shehbaz. 2008. Five additional tribes (Aphragmeae, Biscutelleae, Calepineae, Conringieae, and Erysimeae) in the Brassicaceae (Cruciferae). Harvard Pap. Bot. 13: 165-170. Hall, J. C., K. J. Sytsma, and H. H. Iltis. 2002. Phylogeny of Capparaceae and Brassicaceae based on chloroplast sequence data. Amer. J. Bot. 89: 1826-1842. Hauser, L. A. and T. J. Crovello. 1982. Numerical analysis of generic relationships in Thelypodieae (Brassicaceae). Syst. Bot. 7: 249-268. Janchen, E. 1942. Das System der Cruciferen. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 91: 1-18. Koch, M. 2003. Molecular phylogenetics, evolution and population biology in Brassicaceae. In: A. K. Sharma and A. Sharma, eds. 2003+. Plant Genome: Biodiversity and Evolution. 2+ vols. in parts. Enfield, N. H. Vol. 1, part A, pp. 1-35. Koch, M. et al. 1999b. Molecular systematics of Arabidopsis and Arabis. Pl. Biol. (Stuttgart) 1: 529-537. Koch, M. et al. 2003b. Molecular systematics, evolution, and population biology in the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 90: 151-171. Koch, M., B. Haubold, and T. Mitchell-Olds. 2000. Comparative analysis of chalcone synthase and alcohol dehydrogenase loci in Arab

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Included Genus

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    Brassicaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).