Basellaceae Raf.
  • Fl. Tellur. 3: 44. 1837. (Nov--Dec 1837)
  • Madeira-vine Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Basellaceae Raf. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000066. Accessed on: 31 Oct 2020'

General Information

Vines herbaceous or herbs twining, usually fleshy, glabrous. Leaves simple, alternate, usually petiolate, margin entire. Inflorescences of spikes, racemes, or panicles; bracts 3, caducous; bracteoles 2, persistent. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, small. Perianth segments 5, white or reddish, distinct or connate at base, imbricate in bud, persistent in fruit. Stamens 5, opposite to petals; filaments inserted on perianth. Ovary superior, 1-loculed; ovule 1, basal, campylotropous. Pistil united from 3 carpels. Style simple with 3 stigmas or 3 free styles. Fruit a utricle, dry or fleshy, often surrounded by persistent bracteoles and perianth. Seed globular; testa membranous; endosperm copious; embryo spirally twisted or semicircular to horseshoe-shaped.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Vines [herbs], perennial, succulent, mucilaginous, glabrous. Leaves alternate, sessile or petiolate; blade margins entire [toothed]; stipules absent. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, racemose, [spicate, or paniculate], bracteate. Flowers usually bisexual, sessile or pedicellate, subtended by 1-2 bracts; perianth hypogynous, hypanthium present; sepals 2, distinct or basally connate; petals [4-]5[-13], basally connate; nectary annular; stamens [4-]5[-9], epipetalous, basally connate; filaments erect or reflexed in bud, broadened at base; anthers [basifixed]versatile, 4-locular, dehiscence longitudinal [terminal]; pollen [6-] panto-porate; pistils 3-carpellate, unilocular; placentation basal; ovule 1; styles 3, basally connate; stigmas slender, bifid to clavate or capitate [or style 1, with stigma capitate to 3-lobed]. Fruits utricles, surrounded by dry or fleshy perianth, winged or not. Seeds usually rust colored, testa membranous; endosperm copious; embryo curved.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Ovary superior, 1-celled, with a solitary basal shortly stalked ovule; style terminal, often deeply divided into 3 stigmas

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Seed solitary, almost spherical, with a membranous testa; endosperm copious, surrounded by the spirally twisted embryo

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Fruit indehiscent, surrounded by the persistent often fleshy calyx

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Sepals 5, often coloured, almost free or united into a 5-lobed tube, imbricate, persistent in fruit

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, in spikes, racemes or panicles; bracts small; bracteoles 2, often united to the base of the calyx

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stamens 5, inserted opposite and at the base of the sepals; filaments free, short; anthers with 2 parallel cells opening longitudinally

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Petals absent

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Twiners with slender steins and rather fleshy alternate entire petiolate leaves; stipules absent

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, entire or almost entire, usually petiolate, exstipulate

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Subsucculent herbs with slender twining stems, glabrous

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences of spikes, racemes or panicles, axillary or terminal

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Stamens 5, inserted opposite and at base of perianth lobes; filaments free; anthers dehiscing variously

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Ovary superior, unilocular; styles terminal, free or united or 3-fid; stigmas 3; ovule solitary, basal, short stalked

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Flowers small, actinomorphic, hermaphrodite or unisexual; bracts small; bracteoles 2–4, frequently appressed to base of perianth, sometimes winged

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Perianth 5-lobed, lobes united at base only or into a 5-lobed tube, imbricate, persistent in fruit

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Fruit indehiscent, enveloped by persistent frequently fleshy perianth

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Seeds solitary, globose; endosperm present

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Seeds solitary, almost spherical; endosperm copious or almost absent, surrounded by the spirally twisted or semi-annular embryo

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Fruit indehiscent, surrounded by the persistent often fleshy perianth or winged bracteoles

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Stamens 5, opposite to the perianth-lobes, inserted at their base; filaments free, short; anthers versatile, variously dehiscing

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Ovary superior, 1-locular; ovule solitary, basal, shortly stalked, campylotropous; style terminal, simple or 3-fid, or 3 free styles

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Flowers regular, hermaphrodite or unisexual, in spikes, racemes or panicles; bracts small; bracteoles 2–4, often 2 adnate to the base of the perianth, sometimes wing-like

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Perianth 5-lobed; lobes imbricate, sometimes coloured, united into a tube below or almost free, persistent

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Subsucculent, glabrous, twining herbs with slender stems and alternate, entire, petiolate or rarely sessile, exstipulate leaves

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Bogle, A. L. 1969. The genera of Portulacaceae and Basellaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 50: 566-598. Nowicke, J. W. 1996. Pollen morphology, exine structure and the relationships of Basellaceae and Didiereaceae to Portulacaceae. Syst. Bot. 21: 187-208. Sperling, C. R. 1987. Systematics of the Basellaceae. Ph.D. thesis. Harvard University. Sperling, C. R. and V. Bittrich. 1993. Basellaceae. In: K. Kubitzki et al., eds. 1990+. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. 4+ vols. Berlin etc. Vol. 2, pp. 143-146. Wilson, P. 1932e. Basellaceae. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Flora.... 47+ vols. New York. Vol. 21, pp. 337-339.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Madeira-vine Family

     Information From

    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Basellaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).