Balanophoraceae Rich.
  • Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 8: 429. 1822. (Nov 1822)


This taxon is accepted by World Flora Online consortium
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Herbs, monoecious or dioecious, fleshy, parasitic on roots or rhizomes of various hosts. Rhizome usually branched, usually with scales or warts and/or lenticels. Flowering shoots endogenously arising from rhizome; scapes with or without leaves, unbranched. Leaves scaly, opposite or alternate and distichous or spiraled, sometimes whorled, rarely contorted or clustered, without stomata. Inflorescences unisexual or androgynous, terminal, spadix or spadixlike structure covered with minute branches; branches frequently subtended by variously modified bract. Flowers unisexual, pedicellate or sessile. Male flowers: larger than female flowers, 3(or 4 or more)-merous. Perianth apically lobed or dentate, sometimes absent; lobes valvate. Stamens 1 or 2 when perianth absent or usually as numerous as and opposite to perianth lobes when perianth present; filaments free or connate into a synandrium; anthers free or connate, 2-loculed or more, dehiscent by slits. Female flowers: congested on branches or basally on spadicles and/or shoot axis. Perianth absent or reduced and 2- to irregularly lobed, adnate to ovary. Ovary inferior. styles 1 or 2; stigmas slightly capitellate. Fruit a 1-seeded achene.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Stamens 1–2 in the achlamydeous flowers, in those with a perianth often equal in number to, and opposite the lobes; filaments free or connate; anthers 2–4-celled or with many cells, free or connate, opening by pores or slits

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Flowers unisexual, very rarely hermaphrodite, densely crowded into unisexual or androgynous inflorescences; male flowers without or with a valvate 3–8-lobed perianth

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Fleshy herbs parasitic on roots, annual or perennial, destitute of chlorophyll and stomata

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 2
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    Ovary 1–3-celled, adnate to the perianth when present; styles 1–2, terminal or rarely the stigma sessile and discoid; ovule solitary in each cell, mostly pendulous, nude or with a single integument

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Fruit small, nut-like, 1-celled, 1-seeded

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    Seeds with abundant endosperm and very small embryo

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Leaves scaly, spirally arranged or distichous, decussate or verticillate, sometimes much reduced

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Stems with or without leaves, unbranched

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Male flowers without a perianth, or perianth of 3–7 segments

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Inflorescence branched or appearing spadix-like, the branches much suppressed, rarely composed of minute cymes (Cynomorium L.); branches of first order bracteate, well-developed to totally suppressed, sometimes with the sterile apical part peltately widened; bracts scaly, ± transformed and reduced, triangular or peltate or reduced to a clavate structure, caducous or persistent, Flowers unisexual, rarely bisexual

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Female flowers without a perianth or with a superior perianth inconspicuously 2-lobed or rarely 3–6-lobed

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Stamens 1–7 or united into a synandrium, opposite the perianth-segments; anthers dehiscing longitudinally or irregularly

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Ovary 1-locular or without a cavity and any definite placenta; styles 1–2(–3), alternate with perianth-lobes; stigma inconspicuous or ± capitellate; generally one few-celled embryo developing in the central tissue of the ovary, surrounded by a few-celled endosperm and a layer of stone cells at maturity

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Fruit a small 1-seeded achene

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Herbaceous, fleshy root-parasites, without chlorophyll and roots, yellowish white to yellow, orange to red or brown to black

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Tuber cylindrical or subspherical, branched or unbranched, irregularly corrugated or variously polygonately furrowed or ± warty, subterranean, developing by germination of a fruit on a suitable host root, producing one or more inflorescence-bearing stems

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Fruit indehiscent, aggregated into syncarpia or separate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Ovary inferior, 1–3-locular, ovules 1–3

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Style 1, long, filiform, or absent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Flowers borne in involucrate heads or in dense fleshy inflorescences

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Male flowers: perianth segments (tepals) 3–9; stamens 2–12, free or united into a synandrium

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Female flowers: perianth absent or much reduced, 3–several-lobed and adnate to ovary

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Herbaceous parasites on roots of woody plants, without chlorophyll, usually brightly coloured, fleshy, arising from underground tubers attached to host plant, monoecious, dioecious or polygamous

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Tubers cylindrical or subspherical, irregularly lobed or emitting branched cylindrical rhizomes

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Rhizomes with or without scaly leaves

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Inflorescences simple or branched, with or without bracts

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Balanophoraceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).