Aristolochiaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 72–73. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)
  • Dutchman's-pipe Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2019): Aristolochiaceae Juss. Published on the Internet; http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000048. Accessed on: 21 Oct 2019'

General Information

Herbs, shrubs, rarely lianas, subshrubs, or trees; root, stems, and leaves with oil cells. Leaves alternate; stipules absent; petiole usually present and well defined; leaf blade simple, usually pinnately veined, sometimes palmately 3-5-veined, margin usually entire, rarely 3-5-lobed. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemes, cymes, or corymbs, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic or actinomorphic. Perianth usually with 1 petaloid whorl (in Saruma with 2 whorls: outer one sepaloid, inner one petaloid), mostly connate into distinct tube, cylindric to campanulate or subglobose; limb rotate, urceolate, cylindric, or ligulate, 1-3-lobed; lobes valvate. Stamens 6-12 (in China), in 1 or 2 series; filaments adnate to ovary (in Asarum) or style column (in Thottea) with anthers free, or filaments and anthers fully adnate to style column to form gynostemium (in Aristolochia); anthers 2-loculed, dehiscence longitudinal. Ovary inferior to superior, 6-loculed (in Thottea 4-loculed); carpels connate only at base or fully fused; ovules numerous, anatropous, usually in 1 or 2 series; placentation parietal. Styles free or connate, column 3- or 6-lobed (in Thottea 5-20-lobed). Fruit a fleshy or dry capsule, rarely siliquiform or follicular. Seeds many; testa somewhat hard or crustaceous; endosperm copious, fleshy; embryo minute.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Herbs or lianas [shrubs, rarely trees], deciduous or evergreen, often aromatic. Wood with broad medullary rays. Leaves alternate, simple, petiolate. Leaf blade unlobed, margins entire. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemes or solitary flowers, rarely fan-shaped cymes. Flowers bisexual; calyx enlarged, petaloid, usually tubular, [1-,] 3-, [6-, rarely 5-]merous, lobes valvate; corolla usually reduced to scales or absent; stamens 5, 6, or 12 [multiples of 3 or 5], free or adnate to styles and stigmas, forming gynostemium; anthers extrorse; pistil 1, 4-6-carpellate; ovary inferior, partly inferior, or superior; placentation axile (and ovaries 4-6-locular) or parietal; ovules many per locule, anatropous. Fruits capsules [follicles], regularly to irregularly loculicidal, rarely indehiscent [septicidal]. Seeds often flattened; endosperm copious.

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    Morphology

    Seeds numerous, often immersed in the pulpy endocarp, 3-sided or flattened, raphe sometimes thickened or winged; endosperm copious, fleshy; embryo small

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    Fruit capsular or rarely indehiscent, sometimes dehiscing from the base upwards and hanging like an inverted parachute

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    Ovary inferior or rarely semi-superior, 4–6-celled or imperfectly celled; styles thick, short, united into a column, divided into 3–8 stigmatic lobes; ovules numerous in each cell

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    Climbing shrubs, or rarely dwarf and erect; stems of the woody species in cross-section showing broad medullary rays; roots often medicinal

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    Flowers solitary or racemose, axillary or in clusters on the older wood, pedicellate, hermaphrodite, zygomorphic or rarely actinomorphic

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    Leaves petiolate, alternate, exstipulate, simple, mostly entire

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    Stamens 6-∞ , in 1–2 series around the apex of the ovary or stylar column; filaments short, thick, free or scarcely distinguishable from the column; anthers free or adnate, with 2 parallel cells, extrorse, opening longitudinally

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    Perianth single, often enlarged and petaloid, variously produced above the ovary, often tubular, the limb either symmetrically 3-lobed, or unilateral and entire or lobed, usually highly coloured and foetid

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    Herbs, shrubs or climbers, those with woody stems mostly with characteristic broad medullary rays

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    Leaves alternate, simple, entire or lobed, often cordate, palmately nerved, petiolate, exstipulate

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    Flowers hermaphrodite , epigynous, solitary, racemose or in fascicles, sometimes on the old wood at base, terminal or axillary, with or without bracts, regular or irregular

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    Calyx usually enlarged and petaloid, basally tubular or campanulate, with either a symmetrically 3-lobed limb or unilateral and entire or lobed, often highly coloured and foetid

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    Ovary inferior or rarely half-inferior, completely or partially 4–6-locular, with parietal or axile placentas, the styles united into a column; stigma 3–many-lobed (in >i>Saruma, however, the carpels are free); ovules numerous in 2 series in each locule, anatropous, horizontal or pendulous

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    Stamens usually 6 or more in 1 or 2 series around the apex of the ovary or adnate to the stylar column forming a gynostegium, the filaments short, thick, free or scarcely distinguished from the column; anthers with 2 thecae, opening extrorsely by dorsal slits, free or united with style; pollen subspherical and inaperturate

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    Seeds numerous, usually flat, with copious horny or fleshy endosperm and minute embryo

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    Fruit a capsule, often opening from the base upwards or less often indehiscent

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    Petals usually absent but well developed in Saruma and vestigial in >i>Asarum

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    Leaves alternate, petiolate, exstipulate, simple, entire, sometimes lobed

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    Perennial herbs or shrubs, erect, scrambling or climbing, sometimes lianes, often with tuberous rhizomes

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    Calyx petaloid, usually enlarged, basally tubular, expanding into a limb above; limb symmetrically 3-lobed, or unilateral and entire or lobed

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    Flowers terminal, axillary or borne on the stem (cauligerous), solitary, fasciculate or in few to many-flowered racemose or cymose inflorescences, hermaphrodite, epigynous, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, with or without bracts

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    Stamens 6–many in 1–2 or more whorls, free or adnate to the stylar column forming agynostemium; anthers 2-thecous with 4 pollen sacs, extrorse, dehiscing longitudinally

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    Petals absent except in Saruma, vestigial in Asarum

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    Ovary inferior, rarely half inferior, 4–6 locular, syncarpous or apocarpous in Saruma, placentas parietal or seemingly axile; ovules numerous, anatropous, in 1–2 vertical series in each locule, horizontal or pendulous; styles connate into a column; stigma 3–many-lobed

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    Fruit a capsule, dehiscing septicidally or irregularly, or more rarely indehiscent

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    Seeds usually many, variously shaped, raphe sometimes thickened and winged; endosperm abundant, embryo minute

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Duchartre, P. 1864. Aristolochiaceae. In: A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. de Candolle, eds. 1823-1873. Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis.... 17 vols. Paris etc. Vol. 15, pp. 421-498. Gregory, M. P. 1956. A phyletic rearrangement of the Aristolochiaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 43: 110-122. Schmidt, O. C. 1935. Aristolochiaceae. In: H. G. A. Engler et al., eds. 1924+. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien..., ed. 2. 26+ vols. Leipzig and Berlin. Vol. 16b, pp. 202-242. Solereder, H. 1889. Aristolochiaceae. In: H. G. A. Engler and K. Prantl, eds. 1887-1915. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien.... 254 fasc. Leipzig. Fasc. 35[III,1], pp. 264-273. Solereder, H. 1889b. Beiträge zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Aristolochiaceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 10: 410-523, tables 12-14.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Dutchman's-pipe Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Aristolochiaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).