Aristolochiaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 72–73. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)
  • Dutchman's-pipe Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Aristolochiaceae Juss. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000048. Accessed on: 17 Jun 2021'

General Information

Herbs, shrubs, rarely lianas, subshrubs, or trees; root, stems, and leaves with oil cells. Leaves alternate; stipules absent; petiole usually present and well defined; leaf blade simple, usually pinnately veined, sometimes palmately 3-5-veined, margin usually entire, rarely 3-5-lobed. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemes, cymes, or corymbs, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic or actinomorphic. Perianth usually with 1 petaloid whorl (in Saruma with 2 whorls: outer one sepaloid, inner one petaloid), mostly connate into distinct tube, cylindric to campanulate or subglobose; limb rotate, urceolate, cylindric, or ligulate, 1-3-lobed; lobes valvate. Stamens 6-12 (in China), in 1 or 2 series; filaments adnate to ovary (in Asarum) or style column (in Thottea) with anthers free, or filaments and anthers fully adnate to style column to form gynostemium (in Aristolochia); anthers 2-loculed, dehiscence longitudinal. Ovary inferior to superior, 6-loculed (in Thottea 4-loculed); carpels connate only at base or fully fused; ovules numerous, anatropous, usually in 1 or 2 series; placentation parietal. Styles free or connate, column 3- or 6-lobed (in Thottea 5-20-lobed). Fruit a fleshy or dry capsule, rarely siliquiform or follicular. Seeds many; testa somewhat hard or crustaceous; endosperm copious, fleshy; embryo minute.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Herbs or lianas [shrubs, rarely trees], deciduous or evergreen, often aromatic. Wood with broad medullary rays. Leaves alternate, simple, petiolate. Leaf blade unlobed, margins entire. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemes or solitary flowers, rarely fan-shaped cymes. Flowers bisexual; calyx enlarged, petaloid, usually tubular, [1-,] 3-, [6-, rarely 5-]merous, lobes valvate; corolla usually reduced to scales or absent; stamens 5, 6, or 12 [multiples of 3 or 5], free or adnate to styles and stigmas, forming gynostemium; anthers extrorse; pistil 1, 4-6-carpellate; ovary inferior, partly inferior, or superior; placentation axile (and ovaries 4-6-locular) or parietal; ovules many per locule, anatropous. Fruits capsules [follicles], regularly to irregularly loculicidal, rarely indehiscent [septicidal]. Seeds often flattened; endosperm copious.

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    Morphology

    Seeds numerous, often immersed in the pulpy endocarp, 3-sided or flattened, raphe sometimes thickened or winged; endosperm copious, fleshy; embryo small

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    Fruit capsular or rarely indehiscent, sometimes dehiscing from the base upwards and hanging like an inverted parachute

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    Ovary inferior or rarely semi-superior, 4–6-celled or imperfectly celled; styles thick, short, united into a column, divided into 3–8 stigmatic lobes; ovules numerous in each cell

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    Climbing shrubs, or rarely dwarf and erect; stems of the woody species in cross-section showing broad medullary rays; roots often medicinal

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    Flowers solitary or racemose, axillary or in clusters on the older wood, pedicellate, hermaphrodite, zygomorphic or rarely actinomorphic

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    Leaves petiolate, alternate, exstipulate, simple, mostly entire

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    Stamens 6-∞ , in 1–2 series around the apex of the ovary or stylar column; filaments short, thick, free or scarcely distinguishable from the column; anthers free or adnate, with 2 parallel cells, extrorse, opening longitudinally

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    Perianth single, often enlarged and petaloid, variously produced above the ovary, often tubular, the limb either symmetrically 3-lobed, or unilateral and entire or lobed, usually highly coloured and foetid

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    Herbs, shrubs or climbers, those with woody stems mostly with characteristic broad medullary rays

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    Leaves alternate, simple, entire or lobed, often cordate, palmately nerved, petiolate, exstipulate

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    Flowers hermaphrodite , epigynous, solitary, racemose or in fascicles, sometimes on the old wood at base, terminal or axillary, with or without bracts, regular or irregular

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    Calyx usually enlarged and petaloid, basally tubular or campanulate, with either a symmetrically 3-lobed limb or unilateral and entire or lobed, often highly coloured and foetid

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    Ovary inferior or rarely half-inferior, completely or partially 4–6-locular, with parietal or axile placentas, the styles united into a column; stigma 3–many-lobed (in >i>Saruma, however, the carpels are free); ovules numerous in 2 series in each locule, anatropous, horizontal or pendulous

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    Stamens usually 6 or more in 1 or 2 series around the apex of the ovary or adnate to the stylar column forming a gynostegium, the filaments short, thick, free or scarcely distinguished from the column; anthers with 2 thecae, opening extrorsely by dorsal slits, free or united with style; pollen subspherical and inaperturate

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    Seeds numerous, usually flat, with copious horny or fleshy endosperm and minute embryo

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    Fruit a capsule, often opening from the base upwards or less often indehiscent

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    Petals usually absent but well developed in Saruma and vestigial in >i>Asarum

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    Leaves alternate, petiolate, exstipulate, simple, entire, sometimes lobed

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    Perennial herbs or shrubs, erect, scrambling or climbing, sometimes lianes, often with tuberous rhizomes

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    Calyx petaloid, usually enlarged, basally tubular, expanding into a limb above; limb symmetrically 3-lobed, or unilateral and entire or lobed

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    Flowers terminal, axillary or borne on the stem (cauligerous), solitary, fasciculate or in few to many-flowered racemose or cymose inflorescences, hermaphrodite, epigynous, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, with or without bracts

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    Stamens 6–many in 1–2 or more whorls, free or adnate to the stylar column forming agynostemium; anthers 2-thecous with 4 pollen sacs, extrorse, dehiscing longitudinally

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    Petals absent except in Saruma, vestigial in Asarum

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    Ovary inferior, rarely half inferior, 4–6 locular, syncarpous or apocarpous in Saruma, placentas parietal or seemingly axile; ovules numerous, anatropous, in 1–2 vertical series in each locule, horizontal or pendulous; styles connate into a column; stigma 3–many-lobed

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    Fruit a capsule, dehiscing septicidally or irregularly, or more rarely indehiscent

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    Seeds usually many, variously shaped, raphe sometimes thickened and winged; endosperm abundant, embryo minute

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Herbes'dressées ou volubiles, ou lianes, rarement arbustes.'Feuilles'alternes, en général pétiolées et entières, souvent cordées.'Fleurs'axillaires, parfois très grandes, solitaires ou en cymes pauci- ou pluriflores; périgone corollin, 3-mère, actinomorphe ou zygomorphe, présentant dans le dernier cas les formes les plus variées et se décomposant en un utricule subsphérique à la base, un tube et un limbe ± développé, unilatéral, 2-labié, 3-lobé ou largement épanoui ; 6-9-12-24 étamines soudées au style (gynostème), rarement libres; anthères extrorses; ovaire infère, (4) 6-loculaire, en général multiovulé, à placentation axillaire; style divisé en 6-12 branches stigmatiques.'Fruit'typiquement capsulaire, à déhiscence septicide ou irrégulière, ou indéhiscent.'Graines aplaties souvent triangulaires, albuminées, à très petit embryon.\n\t\t\tSept genres et près de 400 espèces surtout intertropicales, un genre ( Aristolochia ) et 7 espèces au Congo belge, dont une ou deux comptent parmi les lianes les plus communes de la forêt équatoriale.\n\t\t\tLes Aristoloches sont célèbres par l'étrangeté de leurs fleurs parfois énormes et leur extraordinaire adaptation entomophile : fortement protogynes, leurs périgones constituent de véritables pièges. Elles attirent par leur odeur, souvent fétide, de petits diptères qui pénètrent jusque dans l'utricule où, s'ils ont visité antérieurement une autre fleur, ils pollinisent les stigmates, mais d'où ils ne pourront sortir, chargés de pollen, qu'après la déhiscence des anthères, quand les poils rigides de la face interne du tube, poils dirigés vers le bas, permettant donc l'entrée et non la sortie, se seront fanés. On a décrit en outre des dispositifs phototropiques, l'utricule présentant au début des portions translucides et s'obscurcissant à la fin de l'anthèse. Bien connus pour certaines espèces extratropicales à fleurs médiocres, il y aurait grand intérêt à observer ces phénomènes sur les espèces tropicales à grandes fleurs et à connaître leurs visiteurs. A remarquer aussi la déhiscence incomplète des capsules avec formation d'élégantes corbeilles assurant une meilleure dissémination des graines; d'autre part, dans les espèces ligneuses, les pétioles qui présentent un épaississement, sont sensibles au contact.\n\t\t\tUsage : Souvent cultivées comme ornementales (voir note 2, p. 382), beaucoup d'Aristoloches, spécialement américaines, jouaient un rôle important dans l'ancienne médecine et le conservent dans les thérapeutiques populaires; il est curieux qu'aucune indication n'ait été recueillie sur leurs usages au Congo belge.

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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Duchartre, P. 1864. Aristolochiaceae. In: A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. de Candolle, eds. 1823-1873. Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis.... 17 vols. Paris etc. Vol. 15, pp. 421-498. Gregory, M. P. 1956. A phyletic rearrangement of the Aristolochiaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 43: 110-122. Schmidt, O. C. 1935. Aristolochiaceae. In: H. G. A. Engler et al., eds. 1924+. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien..., ed. 2. 26+ vols. Leipzig and Berlin. Vol. 16b, pp. 202-242. Solereder, H. 1889. Aristolochiaceae. In: H. G. A. Engler and K. Prantl, eds. 1887-1915. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien.... 254 fasc. Leipzig. Fasc. 35[III,1], pp. 264-273. Solereder, H. 1889b. Beiträge zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Aristolochiaceen. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 10: 410-523, tables 12-14.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Dutchman's-pipe Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • F http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Aristolochiaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).