Trees evergreen, dioecious or monoecious, with relatively large pith in trunk and resin in cortex. Leaves spirally arranged or decussate, sessile, decurrent. Cones unisexual. Pollen cones axillary or terminal on branchlets, solitary or clustered; microsporophylls numerous, spirally arranged, sessile; microsporangia 4-20, external, suspended, arranged in 2 rows, filiform; pollen sacs split longitudinally; pollen nonsaccate. Seed cones solitary, terminal on branchlets, maturing in 2nd or 3rd year; bracts numerous, spirally arranged; ovulate scales degenerate or ligulate, connate with bracts on 1 side, each with 1 ovule at base abaxially; ovules connate with ovulate scales or with bracts (when ovulate scales degenerate); bracts of mature cones deciduous, flattened, woody or thickly leathery, bearing 1 seed in basal part (if developed), sometimes adnate with ligulate seed scales in center of adaxial surface, apex triangular or caudate. Seeds connate with bracts or detached, flattened, winged or not. 2n = 26.