Aquifoliaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
  • Přir. Rostlin 2(110): 440, 438. 1825.


This taxon is accepted by World Flora Online consortium
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Trees or shrubs, evergreen or deciduous. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite; leaf blade leathery, papery, or membranous, margin entire, serrate, or spinose; stipules minute, persistent or caducous, scar callose; petiole present, rarely absent. Inflorescence a cyme usually of order 1, 2, or 3(-5), respectively composed of a maximum of 1, 3, or 7(-31) developed flowers, axillary, solitary on current year’s branchlets or fasciculate on second year’s branchlets. Plants dioecious. Flowers hypogynous, regular, small, unisexual, by stamens or ovary abortive, 4-6(-23)-merous; calyx persistent; corolla often white or cream, rarely green, yellow, pink, or red; petals imbricate, mostly connate at base up to half of their length. Male flowers: calyx 4-8-lobed; petals 4-8; stamens isomerous, alternating with petals, epipetalous; anthers oblong-ovoid, introrse, longitudinally dehiscent; rudimentary ovary subglobose or pulvinate, rostrate. Female flowers: calyx 4-8-lobed; petals 4-8; staminodes sagittate or cordate, isomerous, alternating with petals, epipetalous; ovary superior, ovoid, 4-8(-10)-loculed, rarely pubescent; style rarely developed; stigma capitate, discoid, or columnar. Fruit a drupe, red, brown, or black (or green in Ilex chapaensis), usually globose; exocarp membranous or papery; mesocarp fleshy. Pyrenes (1-)4-6(-23); endocarp smooth, leathery, woody, or stony, striate, striate-sulcate, or rugose, and/or pitted.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    Morphology

    Fruit drupaceous, of 3 or more 1-seeded pyrenes; seed with copious fleshy endosperm and small straight embryo

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Disk absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Ovary superior, 3- or more-celled; style terminal or absent; ovules 1–2 in each cell, pendulous from the apex

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Petals 4 or 5, free or connate at the base, hypogynous, imbricate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Stamens hypogynous, 4 or 5, alternate with the petals, rarely more numerous, free; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Flowers actinomorphic, hermaphrodite or unisexual, fasciculate or subumbellate or rarely solitary

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Calyx-lobes imbricate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Trees or shrubs, mostly evergreen

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, simple; stipules absent, or rarely present

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Male flowers with 4–5(–9) stamens, free or inserted at the base of the corolla-tube, alternating with the petals, hypogynous; anthers dithecous, opening by longitudinal slits; rudimentary ovary 1-locular

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Corolla rotate; petals 4–5(–9), free or joined at the base, imbricate or valvate; disk absent

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple; stipules minute or absent

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Trees or shrubs, mostly evergreen, usually practically glabrous

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Calyx-lobes 4–6(–9), imbricate

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Flowers regular, hermaphrodite or sexes separate, in cymes or fascicles, rarely solitary

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Female flowers: ovary superior, (2–)3(–22)-locular; ovules 1–2 in each locule, pendulous; style terminal or absent; stigma capitate or discoid; staminodes present but anthers sessile or on shorter filaments

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Fruit a drupe with (1–)2–6(–many) 1(–2)-seeded pyrenes

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Seeds with copious endosperm

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, simple; stipules absent or very small

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Trees or shrubs, mostly evergreen

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Flowers frequently dioecious, actinomorphic, cymose, fasciculate, subumbellate or rarely solitary

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Petals free or connate at the base, imbricate or valvate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Calyx-lobes imbricate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Disk absent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Stamens free, alternate with the corolla-lobes; anthers 2-thecous, opening lengthwise

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Fruit drupaceous

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Ovary superior, 3- or more-locular; style terminal or stigma sessile; ovules 1–2 in each loculus, pendulous from the apex

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Seeds with copious fleshy endosperm and small straight embryo

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Aquifoliaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).