Herbs, perennial, rhizomatous, caulescent; turions absent. Leaves alternate, floating [submersed], petiolate [sessile]; sheath not persisting longer than blade, not leaving circular scar when shed, not ligulate, not auriculate; blade ovate to narrowly lanceolate [linear]; intravaginal squamules (i.e., minute appressed, planate trichomes attached at basal edge) scales, more than 2. Inflorescences terminal, spikes, subtended by spathe, pedunculate; peduncle following fertilization not elongating, not spiraling. Flowers bisexual [unisexual]; subtending bracts absent; perianth present [absent]; tepals 1[--6]; stamens 6--18[--50] in 2--3[--4] series, not epitepalous; anthers distinct, dehiscing longitudinally; pollen ellipsoid; pistils 2--6[--9], distinct, not stipitate; ovules basal-marginal, anatropous. Fruits follicles. Seeds 4; embryo straight.
Herbs, perennial, freshwater aquatic. Rhizome tuberous, with fibrous roots. Leaves submerged and/or floating, basal, long petiolate, broadly elliptic to linear, with few primary veins and numerous transverse secondary veins, sheathed at base. Inflorescence usually a simple or 2-forked terminal spike; spathe present, but usually very early caducous. Flowers hermaphroditic or unisexual. Perianth segments 1-3 or rarely absent, white, yellow, mauve, or bluish violet, often petaloid, persistent. Stamens 6 to many; filaments elongated, free, filiform or flattened; anthers extrorse, 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits. Carpels 3-6(-8), free or slightly united near base; ovary superior; style short; ovules 2-8 per carpel. Fruit a whorl of follicles. Seeds without endosperm; embryo straight.
Fruits opening on the adaxial side
Carpels free, 3-6, sessile; style short; ovules 2 or more, ascending
Stamens 6 or more, free, hypogynous, persistent; anthers extrorse, 2-locular
Perianth-segments 1-3, or absent, sometimes petaloid and bract-like, equal or unequal, usually persistent
Flowers hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual, spicate-scapose, spike simple or usually 2- (rarely up to 8-) forked, without bracts
Leaves long-petiolate, or sessile, oblong-elliptic to linear, with few principal parallel nerves and numerous transverse secondary nerves
Fresh-water aquatic herbs with submerged or floating leaves; rhizome tuberous, with fibrous roots
Rhizomatous glabrous monoecious or rarely dioecious herbs with tubers, usually growing submerged in fresh water or (after drying up) on wet soil
Seeds discoidal to fusiform, straight or slightly curved, with a simple or double testa; endosperm absent
Leaves all basal and alternate, simple and usually with long petioles; blades oblong to linear
Inflorescence usually a simple or bifid spike (rarely the spike digitate and divided into 3–4 parts), at first enclosed in a thin caducous spathe, very rarely (in the South African species A. ranunculiflorus) the inflorescence is much abbreviated simulating a >i>Ranunculus flower
Stamens 1–6, rarely more; filaments free, filiform or flattened; anthers extrorse, 2-thecous, most often only 0.2–0.5 mm. long
Ovaries 3–8, free or slightly united near their base; each ovary superior and 1-locular, with 1–14 erect ovules borne along one side of the locule-wall or at the base of the locule
Flowers bisexual or more rarely unisexual
Bruggen, H. W. E. van. 1973. Revision of the genus Aponogeton (Aponogetonaceae): VI. The species of Africa. Bull. Jard. Bot. Natl. Belg. 43: 1--2, 193--233. Bruggen, H. W. E. van. 1985. Monograph of the Genus Aponogeton (Aponogetonaceae). Stuttgart.
|Aponogeton or Cape-pondweed Family|