Apocynaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 143–144. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)


This taxon is accepted by World Flora Online consortium
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Trees, shrubs, or vines, rarely subshrubs or herbs, with latex or rarely watery juice. Leaves simple, opposite, rarely whorled or alternate, pinnately veined; stipules absent or rarely present. Inflorescences cymose, terminal or axillary, with bracteoles. Flowers bisexual, 5- [or 4]-merous, actinomorphic. Calyx 5- or rarely 4-partite, quincuncial, basal glands usually present. Corolla 5- or rarely 4-lobed, salverform, funnelform, urceolate, or rarely rotate, lobes overlapping to right or left, rarely valvate. Stamens 5 or rarely 4; filaments short; anthers mostly sagittate, free or connivent into a cone adherent to pistil head, dehiscing longitudinally, base rounded, cordate, sagittate, or prolonged into an empty spur; pollen granular; disc ringlike or cup-shaped, 2-5-lobed, or absent. Ovaries superior, rarely half-inferior, connate or distinct, 1- or 2-locular; ovules (1 or) 2-numerous per locule. Style 1; pistil head capitate, conical, or lampshade-shaped, base stigmatic, apex 2-cleft and not stigmatic. Fruit a berry, drupe, capsule, or follicle. Seeds with or without coma; endosperm thick and often horny, scanty, sometimes absent; embryo straight or nearly so, cotyledons often large, radicle terete.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Calyx often glandular inside; lobes 5 or rarely 4, imbricate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Corolla tubular, variously shaped; lobes contorted-imbricate, very rarely valvate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Stamens 5 or rarely 4, inserted in the tube; filaments free or rarely united; anthers often sagittate, free or connivent around the stigma, rarely adherent to the latter, 2-celled, opening lengthwise, connective often produced at the apex; pollen granular; disk usually present, annular, cupular or of separate glands

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Ovary superior, 1-celled with 2 parietal placentas or 2-celled with the placentas adnate to the septa, or carpels 2 and free or connate only at the base with ventral placentas in each carpel

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Style 1, split at the base or entire, thickened and stigmatose below the apex; ovules 2 or more in each carpel

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Fruit entire and indehiscent or of 2 separate carpels, baccate, drupaceous or follicular

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Trees, shrubs or climbers, rarely perennial herbs, with latex

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Leaves opposite or verticillate, rarely alternate, simple, entire; stipules usually absent

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Seeds mostly with endosperm and large straight embryo, often winged or appendaged with long silky hairs

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Seeds in dry fruits often winged or with a coma, mostly with endosperm and a large embryo

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Fruit entire or consisting of two, rarely more, separate or partly united carpels, baccate, drupaceous, or follicular

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Calyx often with colleters inside

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Corolla tubular, sometimes with a corona; lobes contorted or occasionally (not in FZ area) valvate

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Stipules usually absent

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Flowers bisexual, mostly actinomorphic, 5- or rarely 4-merous

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Ovary superior or sometimes partly inferior, 1-celled and with 2 parietal placentas, 2-celled and with an axile placenta in each cell, or composed of 2, rarely more, separate or at the base partly united carpels each with an adaxial placenta; ovules 2 to many; style one, often split at the base when carpels more or less separate; stigma composed of a large variously shaped part, usually called the clavuncula, with laterally and/or basally the receptive zone, which is — if stigma coherent with the anthers — below the level of coherence, and a small apical usually sterile (also in FZ) so-called stigma

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Disk annular, cupular, composed of separate glands, or absent

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Stamens inserted on the corolla; filaments free from each other or exceptionally (not in FZ area) united in a tube, often very short, frequently continued downwards as ridges at the corolla inside; anthers frequently triangular, connivent over and often coherent with the stigma, 2-celled, often partly sterile, sometimes with apical appendages; cells parallel, discrete, dehiscent throughout by a longitudinal slit

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Pollen granular

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Trees, shrubs, lianas, or sometimes herbs, mostly with white sticky latex

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite, whorled, or less often alternate, simple, pinnately veined, entire

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Seeds in dry fruits often winged or with a coma, mostly with an endosperm and a large embryo

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Fruit entire or consisting of two (rarely more) separate or partly united carpels, baccate, drupaceous, or follicular

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Stamens included or exserted, epipetalous, free or connate to the style; filaments often very short, epipetalous; anthers frequently triangular, of two cells longitudinally dehiscent, often partly sterile, sometimes with apical appendages

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Corolla tubular, contorted or occasionally valvate, free, overlapping to the right or left in bud, sometimes with a corona

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Ovary superior or sometimes partly inferior, 1-celled and with 2 parietal placentas, 2-celled and with an axile placenta in each cell or composed of 2, or more, separate or at the base partly united carpels each with an adaxial placenta; ovules 2 to many; style one, often split at the base when carpels more or less separate; pistil head composed of a large variously shaped stigmatic basal part and a stigmoid apex; disk annular, cupular, composed of separate glands, or absent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Leaves simple, opposite, whorled, or less often alternate (as in Adenium), pinnately veined, entire, rarely stipulate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Trees, shrubs, lianas, or sometimes herbs (not in our area, except introduced ones); latex nearly always present, usually white, sometimes clear, yellow or red

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Calyx often with colleters inside, free or united at the base, imbricate in bud

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Flowers bisexual, mostly actinomorphic, 5- or rarely 4-merous, fragrant

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Included Genus

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Apocynaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).