Annonaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 283. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)
  • Custard-apple family


This taxon is accepted by World Flora Online consortium
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

Trees, shrubs, or climbers, wood and leaves often aromatic; indument of simple or less often (Uvaria, Annona) stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, normally distichous. Stipules absent. Petiole usually short; leaf blade simple, venation pinnate, margin entire. Inflorescences terminal, axillary, leaf-opposed, or extra-axillary [rarely on often underground suckerlike shoots]. Flowers usually bisexual, less often unisexual, solitary, in fascicles, glomerules, panicles, or cymes, sometimes on older wood, usually bracteate and/or bracteolate. Sepals hypogynous, [2 or]3, imbricate or valvate, persistent or deciduous, rarely enlarging and enclosing fruit, free or basally connate. Petals hypogynous, 3-6(-12), most often in 2 whorls of 3 or in 1 whorl of 3 or 4[or 6], imbricate or valvate, sometimes outer whorl valvate and inner slightly imbricate. Stamens hypogynous, usually many, rarely few, spirally imbricate, in several series; filaments very short and thick; anther locules 2, contiguous or separate, rarely transversely locular, adnate to connective, extrorse or lateral, very rarely introrse, opening by a longitudinal slit; connectives often apically enlarged, usually ± truncate, often overtopping anther locules, rarely elongated or not produced. Carpels few to many, rarely solitary, free or less often connate into a 1-locular ovary with parietal placentas; ovules 1 or 2 inserted at base of carpel or 1 to several in 1 or 2 ranks along ventral suture, anatropous; styles short, thick, free or rarely connate; stigmas capitate to oblong, sometimes sulcate or 2-lobed. Fruit usually apocarpous with 1 to many free monocarps, these sometimes moniliform (constricted between seeds when more than 1-seeded), often fleshy, indehiscent, rarely dehiscent (Anaxagorea, Xylopia), and often with base extended into stipe, rarely on slender carpophore (Disepalum), less often syncarpous with carpels completely connate and seeds irregularly arranged and sometimes embedded in fleshy pulp. Seeds 1 to many per monocarp or many per syncarp, often arillate; endosperm copious, ruminate; embryo minute, near hilum.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Trees, shrubs, rarely woody vines, deciduous or evergreen, with aromatic bark, leaves, and flowers. Pith septate to diaphragmed. Leaves alternate, simple, without stipules, petiolate. Leaf blade pinnately veined, unlobed, margins entire. Inflorescences axillary to leaf scars on old wood or to leaves on new shoots, solitary flowers or few-flowered fascicles, pedunculate; bracts or bracteoles present or absent. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual; receptacle becoming enlarged, elevated or flat; perianth hypogynous, segments valvate or imbricate; sepals persistent, (2-)3(-4), distinct or basally connate; petals either 6 in 2 unequal whorls of 3 with petals of outer whorl larger, petals of inner whorl fleshier than the outer, often with corrugate nectary zone, or petals 6-12(-15), nearly equal or unequal, veins impressed on inner face; stamens 10-20 or very numerous, hypogynous, spirally arranged, forming ball or flat-topped mass; filament short, stout; anther linear to oblong-linear, extrorse, longitudinally dehiscent; connective apically elongate, connivent; pistils 1-many, superior, 1-carpellate, 1-locular, distinct or connate to various degrees with at least stigmas distinct; placentation marginal, placenta 1; ovules 1-many per pistil; style short, thick; stigma terminal. Fruits berries, distinct, 1-8(-12) per flower, or coalescent, forming syncarps, 1 per flower. Seeds 1-many per pistil, arillate; endosperm ruminate, oily.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Petals generally 6, in two series, valvate or slightly imbricate, rarely in two series of 2, or the inner series absent

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    Flowers terminal, leaf-opposed or axillary, solitary or crowded, hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual, mostly trimerous

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    • 1
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    Sepals 3, rarely 2, separate or united into a 3-lobed calyx, valvate or rarely imbricate, persistent or deciduous

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Trees, shrubs or climbers, aromatic

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Leaves alternate, entire, exstipulate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Seed with or without an aril, with copious ruminate endosperm and minute embryo

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Fruiting carpels sessile or stipitate, mostly indehiscent

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    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Carpels numerous or rarely few or solitary, free or very rarely united into a 1-celled ovary with parietal placentas; ovules 1 or more

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
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    • 1
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    Stamens generally numerous, hypogynous; anther-cells adnate, with the connective often truncate

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 1
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    Trees, shrubs or lianes, less often small shrublets, often aromatic; bark frequently with a very characteristic impressed pattern of small lozenges on the young shoots; indumentum, if present, simple, stellate or scaly

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Leaves alternate, distichous, thin to coriaceous, entire, penninerved; stipules absent

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Flowers borne on young leafy shoots or on the old wood, rarely on underground suckers, terminal or axillary, hermaphrodite or less often unisexual, solitary, paired, cymose or in fascicles, sessile or stalked, regular, very often fleshy or brittle; bracts and bracteoles often present, sometimes closely enveloping the buds

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Sepals 2–3, valvate or rarely imbricate, sometimes not enclosing the petals in bud, free or somewhat united, rarely accrescent

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    • 2
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    Carpels 1–numerous, free, united at the base or completely united to form a 1-locular ovary; ovules 1–numerous; styles free or united, sometimes flattened but so folded as to appear subcylindrical; stigmas free or rarely united, capitate, oblong or slightly raised or variously folded forming a margin to the style-tissue or radiating, sometimes bifurcating, rarely apparently absent

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Stamens 6–12 and whorled or numerous and spirally (often tightly) arranged on a convex receptacle to form an incomplete hemisphere; rarely outer stamens subpetaloid; anthers linear to rounded with lateral, extrorse or rarely introrse dehiscence, occasionally transversely locellate; connective usually produced, mostly dilated, truncate, oblique, convex, conical, acute or capitate; filaments usually short and free or less often longer and united into a cone covering the carpels

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    • 2
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    Petals 3–6(–12), usually either in 2 whorls of 2–4 or in a single whorl of 3, 4 or 6, valvate, imbricate or rarely open in bud, free or more or less united at the base, usually alternating with the sepals; rarely petals entirely absent

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Seeds with longest axis in line with longest axis of the monocarp (vertical) or at an angle to it (oblique to horizontal) or irregular, sometimes arillate, with abundant ruminate endosperm; embryo minute

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Fruit either consisting of 1–several separate fleshy or somewhat woody indehiscent or rarely dehiscent, sessile or stipitate monocarps, or syncarpous with numerous 1-seeded fruiting carpels or 1-locular and many-seeded

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    • Source: [
    • 2
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    Fruit apocarpous with ripe carpels baccate (fleshy or lignified) or rarely dehiscent, stipitate or sessile, or syncarpous with either aggregated 1-seeded carpels or 1-locular and ?-seeded, Seeds vertical to horizontal, sometimes arillate, with abundant ruminate endosperm; embryo minute

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    Carpels ?–1 free or united at the base, or completely united to form a 1-locular ovary (Monodora); ovules ?–1: styles free or united, or absent

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    Stamens ?, spiral, or 6–12 and whorled (sometimes staminodial) with anthers linear to semi-orbicular, lateral or extrorse (rarely apical); connective usually prolonged beyond the thecae, with the apex truncate, oblique, capitate, convex, conical or acute; filaments usually very short or absent, free, rarely more elongate and united in a cone over the gynoecium (Xylopia)

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Petals 6 (4) in two equal or ± unequal whorls (more rarely one whorl of 6, 4 or 3), imbricate or valvate (rarely open) in bud, free or ± united at the base, usually alternating with the sepals

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Sepals 3 (2), usually valvate in bud, free or ± united

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 3
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    Flowers morphologically terminal (i.e. terminal, supra-axillary, extra-axillary or leaf-opposed) or axillary, solitary or paired to fasciculate or cymose, on the young or old wood, sessile or pedicellate, more rarely pedunculate, actinomorphic, bisexual or more rarely unisexual, often fragrant

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    • 3
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    Leaves alternate in two rows, entire, penninerved, membranous to coriaceous, exstipulate

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Trees, shrubs, or lianes (rarely rhizomatous shrublets), glabrous or with an indumentum of simple, stellate or lepidote hairs; bark usually smooth and entire, pale grey or buff to brown, the branches often reddish to purple-black with lozenge-shaped striations, pubescent or tomentose (rarely glabrous) when young; pith septate, oil cells present

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Fries, R. E. 1931. Revision der Arten einiger Annonaceen-Gattungen. Acta Horti Berg. 10: 1-341. Fries, R. E. 1934. Revision der Arten einiger Annonaceen-Gattungen. Acta Horti Berg. 12(1): 1-220. Fries, R. E. 1939. Revision der Arten einiger Annonaceen-Gattungen. Acta Horti Berg. 12(3): 289-577. Hutchinson, J. 1923. Contributions toward a phylogenetic classification of flowering plants. II. The genera of Annonaceae. Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew: 241-261. Kral, R. 1960. A revision of Asimina and Deeringothamnus (Annonaceae). Brittonia 12(4): 233-278. Rusby, H. H. 1935. The custard-apple family in Florida. J. New York Bot. Gard. 36: 233-239.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Included Genus

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Custard-apple family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Annonaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).