Amaranthaceae Juss.
  • Gen. Pl. 87–88. 1789. (4 Aug 1789)
  • Amaranth Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2019): Amaranthaceae Juss. Published on the Internet; http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000017. Accessed on: 23 Oct 2019'

General Information

Herbs, clambering subshrubs, shrubs, or lianas. Leaves alternate or opposite, entire, exstipulate. Flowers small, bisexual or unisexual, or sterile and reduced, subtended by 1 membranous bract and 2 bracteoles, solitary or aggregated in cymes. Inflorescences elongated or condensed spikes (heads), racemes, or thyrsoid structures of varying complexity. Bracteoles membranous or scarious. Tepals 3-5, membranous, scarious or subleathery, 1-, 3-, 5-, or 7(-23)-veined. Stamens as many as tepals and opposite these, rarely fewer than tepals; filaments free, united into a cup at base or ± entirely into a tube, filament lobes present or absent, pseudostaminodes present or absent; anthers (1- or)2-loculed, dorsifixed, introrsely dehiscent. Ovary superior, 1-loculed; ovules 1 to many; style persistent, short and indistinct or long and slender; stigma capitate, penicillate, 2-lobed or forming 2 filiform branches. Fruit a dry utricle or a fleshy capsule, indehiscent, irregularly bursting, or circumscissile. Seeds lenticular, reniform, subglobose, or shortly cylindric, smooth or verruculose.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Herbs, rarely subshrubs, annual or perennial; trichomes simple (branched in Tidestromia). Stems without nodal spines (Amaranthus spinosus sometimes with paired nodal spines). Leaves alternate or opposite, exstipulate, usually petiolate; blade margins entire (entire or serrulate in Iresine; entire, crispate, or erose in Amaranthus). Inflorescences cymules arranged in spikes, panicles, thyrses, heads, glomerules, clusters, or racemes; each flower subtended by 1 bract and 2 bracteoles (latter sometimes 1 or absent in Amaranthus). Flowers bisexual or unisexual (plants then monoecious or dioecious), hypogynous, generally small or minute; tepals mostly (1-)4-5 or absent, distinct or connate into cups or tubes, scarious, chartaceous, membranaceous, or indurate; stamens 2-5, filaments basally connate into cups or tubes, rarely distinct, alternating with pseudostaminodes (appendages on staminal tubes) or not, anthers 2-locular with 1 line of dehiscence or 4-locular with 2 lines of dehiscence; ovary superior, 1-locular; ovules 1 or, rarely, 2-many; style 1 or absent; stigmas 1-3(-5). Fruits utricles, dry, dehiscent or not. Seeds black, reddish brown, or brown, lenticular, subglobose or globose (rarely cylindric), usually small; embryo peripheral, surrounding mealy perisperm.

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    Morphology

    Seeds globose, compressed or ellipsoid, smooth; embryo annular, surrounding the copious endosperm

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    Ovary superior, 1-celled; style short or long; stigma capitate or 2–3-fid; ovules solitary or rarely several, on basal funicles

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    Fruit dehiscing by a lid or indehiscent

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    Stamens mostly 5, opposite the sepals, hypogynous; filaments united at the base into a short tube, often with staminodes between; anthers 1–or 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits

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    Annual or perennial herbs, rarely undershrubs or climbers; leaves alternate or opposite, simple, exstipulate

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    Flowers actinomorphic, usually hermaphrodite, small, in spikes, heads or racemes, with often scarious bracts and bracteoles, the latter sometimes hooked

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    Sepals 3–5, free or nearly so, imbricate, more or less dry and membranous

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    Petals absent

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    Inflorescence a dense head, loose or dense and spike-like thyrse, spike, raceme or panicle, basically cymose, bracteate; bracts hyaline to membranous, stramineous to white, subtending one or more flowers

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    Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, exstipulate, entire or nearly so

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, rarely trees or lianes

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual (plants dioecious or monoecious), mostly actinomorphic, usually bibracteolate, frequently in ultimate 3-flowered cymules; lateral flowers of such cymules sometimes sterile, modified into scales, spines, hooks or hairs

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    Ovary superior, unilocular; ovules commonly solitary, sometimes more numerous, erect to pendulous, placentation basal; style obsolete to long and slender; stigmas capitate to long and filiform

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    Fruit an irregularly rupturing or circumcissile capsule, rarely a berry or crustaceous, usually with rather thin, membranous walls; seeds round to lenticular or ovoid, embryo curved or circular, surrounding the more or less copious endosperm

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    Perianth uniseriate, membranous to firm and finally indurate, usually falling with the ripe fruit included, tepals free or more or less fused below, frequently more or less pilose or lanate, green to white or variously coloured

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    Stamens isomerous with and opposite the tepals, rarely fewer; filaments free or frequently more or less fused below, sometimes almost completely fused and 5-toothed at the apex with entire or deeply lobed teeth, occasionally some anantherous, alternating with variously shaped pseudostaminodes or not; anthers unilocular or bilocular

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    Seeds round to lenticular or ovoid; embryo curved or circular, surrounding the ± copious endosperm

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Fruit an irregularly rupturing or circumscissile capsule, rarely a berry or crustaceous, usually with thin membranous walls

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    • 4
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    Ovary superior, 1-locular; ovules 1-many, erect to pendulous, placentation basal; style very short to long and slender; stigmas capitate to long and filiform

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Stamens as many as and opposite to the petals, rarely fewer; filaments free or commonly fused into a cup at the base, sometimes almost completely fused and 5-toothed at the apex with entire or deeply lobed teeth, some occasionally without anthers, sometimes alternating with variously shaped pseudostaminodes (see note below); anthers 1–2-locular

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    Perianth uniseriate, membranous to firm and finally ± indurate, usually falling with the ripe fruit included, tepals free or somewhat fused below, frequently ± pilose or lanate, green to white or variously coloured

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, exstipulate, entire or almost so

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs, rarely lianes

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual (plants dioecious or monoecious), mostly actinomorphic, usually bibracteolate, frequently in ultimate 3-flowered cymules; lateral flowers of such cymules sometimes modified into scales, spines, bristles, hairs or hooks

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 4
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    Inflorescence a dense head, loose or spike-like thyrse, spike, raceme or panicle, basically cymose, bracteate; bracts hyaline to white or coloured, subtending 1 or more flowers

  • Provided by: [B].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Carolin, R. C. 1983. The trichomes of the Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 103: 451-466. Eliasson, U. H. 1988. Floral morphology and taxonomic relations among the genera of Amaranthaceae in the New World and the Hawaiian Islands. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 96: 235-283. Robertson, K. R. 1981. The genera of Amaranthaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 62: 267-314. Standley, P. C. 1915. The North American tribes and genera of Amaranthaceae. J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 5: 391-396. Standley, P. C. 1917b. Amaranthaceae. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Flora.... 47+ vols. New York. Vol. 21, pp. 95-169.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Included Genus

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Amaranth Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Amaranthaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).