Alismataceae Vent.
  • Tabl. Regn. Veg. 2: 157. 1799. (5 May 1799)
  • Water-plantain or Arrowhead Family


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Alismataceae Vent. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-7000000012. Accessed on: 30 May 2020'

General Information

Herbs, annual or perennial, rhizomatous, stoloniferous, or cormose, caulescent, glabrous to stellate-pubescent; sap milky. Roots septate or not septate. Leaves basal, submersed, floating, or emersed, sessile or petiolate, sheathing proximally; blade with translucent markings of dots or lines present or absent, basal lobes present or absent; venation reticulate, primary veins parallel from base of blade to apex, secondary veins reticulate. Inflorescences scapose racemes or panicles, rarely umbels, erect, rarely floating or decumbent, whorled (forming racemes) or whorls branching (forming panicles), bracteolate. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, if unisexual, staminate and pistillate on same or different plants, hypogynous, subsessile to long-pedicellate; sepals persistent, 3; petals deciduous, 3, delicate; stamens 0, 6, 9, or to 30, distinct; anthers 2-loculed, dehiscing longitudinally; pistils 0 or 6--1500 or more, distinct or coherent proximally, 1-loculed; placentation basal; ovules1--2. Fruits achenes or follicles. Seeds: embryo U-shaped; endosperm absent in mature seed.

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    Herbs, perennial or rarely annual, aquatic or of marshes, sometimes rhizomatous. Leaves basal, linear, lanceolate, elliptic to ovate or orbicular, or sagittate, with elongated sheathing petioles; principal veins parallel with margins and converging toward apex and connected by transverse veins. Flowers often whorled at nodes of scape forming racemes, panicles, or umbels, pedicellate, actinomorphic, bisexual, unisexual, or polygamous, usually bracteate. Sepals 3, persistent, green. Petals 3, deciduous, usually white, sometimes yellowish. Stamens 3 to numerous, whorled, with elongated filaments; anthers 2-celled, extrorse, opening by longitudinal slits. Carpels 3 to numerous, whorled or spirally arranged, free; ovules 1 to several; style persistent. Fruit a cluster or whorl of laterally compressed achenes, drupelets, or occasionally follicles. Seeds curved, with a horseshoe-shaped embryo; endosperm absent.

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    Morphology

    Seeds curved, with horseshoe-shaped embryo; endosperm none

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    Torus flat to globose

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    Flowers often whorled, racemose or paniculate, bisexual or rarely polygamous, actinomorphic

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    Perennial or annual marsh or aquatic herbs, erect, or rarely with floating leaves; leaves basal, with elongated petioles sheathing but open at the base and linear-lanceolate to ovate-rounded often sagittate blades, the principal nerves parallel with the margins and converging at the apex of the blade, the transverse nerves often close and parallel

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    Fruit a bunch or whorl of achenes, rarely dehiscing at the base

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    Carpels free or rarely united at the base, sometimes in a single whorl; style persistent; ovules solitary or several, basal or on the inner angle

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    Stamens hypogynous, 6 or more, rarely 3, free; anthers 2-locular, extrorse

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    Perianth 2-seriate, the outer 3 imbricate, persistent, green and sepal-like, the inner 3 petaloid, imbricate and deciduous or rarely absent

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    Petals 3, deciduous, rarely 0

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    Stamens 3, 6, 9 or more; filaments filiform or flattened; anthers 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally and laterally

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    Flowers regular, bisexual or unisexual

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    Sepals 3, persistent, herbaceous

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    Leaves erect, rarely floating or submerged, basal; petiole with an expanded, sheathing base; leaf-blade entire, linear-lanceolate to ovate, with a decurrent to sagittate base, acute to rounded apex

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    Inflorescence compound or simple, of whorls of branches or flowers, rarely pseudo-umbellate or with solitary flowers; bracts 2 or 3 at the base of each whorl, and sometimes several bracteoles

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    Perennial, rarely annual, aquatic, swamp or marsh herbs, lactiferous

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    Rhizome very short; roots short, fibrous

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    Carpels superior, free or joined at the base, 3–?, in a whorl or spiral, unilocular; style terminal or ventral; ovules 1, 2 or many, basal and erect, or situated on the ventral suture

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    Fruit indehiscent

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    Seeds oblong, indented laterally to follow the form of the horseshoe-shaped embryo, smooth, wrinkled or ridged, without endosperm

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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Argue, C. L. 1974. Pollen studies in the Alismataceae (Alismaceae). Bot. Gaz. 135: 338--344. Argue, C. L. 1976. Pollen studies in the Alismataceae with special reference to taxonomy. Pollen & Spores 18: 161--173. Beal, E. O. 1960b. The Alismataceae of the Carolinas. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 76: 68--79. Charlton, W. A. 1973. Studies in the Alismataceae. II. Inflorescences of Alismataceae. Canad. J. Bot. 51: 775--789. Correll, D. S. and H. B. Correll. 1972. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southwestern United States. Washington. Godfrey, R. K. and J. W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States: Monocotyledons. Athens, Ga. Haynes, R. R. and L. B. Holm-Nielsen. 1985. A generic treatment of Alismatidae in the Neotropics. Acta Amazôn. 15(suppl.): 153--193. Haynes, R. R. and L. B. Holm-Nielsen. 1994. The Alismataceae. In: Organization for Flora Neotropica. 1968+. Flora Neotropica. 75+ nos. New York. No. 64, pp. 1--112. Rogers, G. K. 1983. The genera of Alismataceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 64: 387--424.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Water-plantain or Arrowhead Family

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • B The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Alismataceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • E CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).