Verbena L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 18. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Verbena L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000040140. Accessed on: 03 Apr 2020'

General Information

13. Verbena L.

Glandularia J.F. Gmel.

Por R. Rueda.

Hierbasanuales o perennes, a veces leñosas en la base; tallos erectos o postrados,generalmente cuadrangulares, algunas veces teretes, glabros o con varios tiposde pelosidad, algunas veces glandulares. Hojas opuestas, frecuentementedecusadas, rara vez verticiladas, simples, dentadas, aserradas, lobadas oincisas, rara vez enteras. Inflorescencias terminales o terminales y axilares,en espigas solitarias, algunas veces con apariencia paniculada o cimosa, lasespigas densas, laxas, cortas y con apariencia de cabezuela o alargadas; floresgeneralmente sésiles, de varios colores, inconspicuas a vistosas; brácteasinconspicuas; cáliz tubular, con 5 costillas terminando en 5 dientesdesiguales, frecuentemente conniventes en fruto; corola hipocraterimorfa oinfundibuliforme, el tubo recto o curvado, barbado internamente a la altura dela garganta, limbo 5-lobado, ligeramente 2-labiado; estambres 4, didínamos,incluidos, adheridos en el 1/2 superior del tubo de la corola; ovario 2-carpelar,cada carpelo 2-locular, cada lóculo uniovulado, el estilo corto, incluido, elestigma con 2 lobos desiguales. Frutos en esquizocarpos, encerrados por elcáliz tubular persistente, separándose al madurar en 4 mericarpos, cada uno con1 semilla. Aprox. 250 spp. América tropical y subtropical, 2-3 spp. en el ViejoMundo.

Bibliografía:Moldenke, H.N. Phytologia 8: 95-104 (1961); 108-152(1961); 8:175-216 (1962); 230-272(1962); 274-323(1962); 371-384(1962); 395-453(1962); 8:460-496 (1963); 9:8-54 (1963); 59-97(1963); 113-181(1963); 189-238(1963); 267-336(1963); 9:351-407 (1964); 459-480(1964); 501-505(1964); 10:56-88 (1964); 89-161(1964); 173-236(1964); 271-319(1964); 406-416(1964); 490-504(1964); 11:1-68 (1964); 80-142(1964); 11:155-213 (1964); 11:219-287 (

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Herbs or subshrubs, annual or perennial. Branches 4-veined. Leaves opposite, sessile, dentate, lobed, or pinnatifid. Spikes usually terminal, simple or branched; bracts small. Flowers alternate, nearly zygomorphic. Calyx membranous, 5-dentate. Corolla with a distinct tube; lobes 5, unequal, spreading. Stamens 4, fertile, didynamous, inserted at middle of corolla tube, included; anthers ovate. Ovary 4-locular; ovules erect, 1 per locule. Capsules dry, included in calyx, dehiscing into 4 1-seeded pyrenes.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    VERBENA L.

    Por Amy Pool

    Hierbas, a veces leñosas en la base. Hojas opuestas, raramente verticiladas, simples, dentadas, lobadas o incisas (raramente enteras). Inflorescencia espigada, terminal o terminal y axilar, espigas solitarias, paniculadas o cimosas, flores de varios colores, brácteas inconspicuas; cáliz generalmente tubular, 5-dentado (subtruncado), dientes desiguales; corola hipocrateriforme, ligeramente 2-labiada, 5-lobada; estambres 4, incluidos; estilo incluido, estigma con 2 lobos desiguales. Fruto un esquizocarpo, encerrado por el cáliz persistente y separándose en la madurez en 4 mericarpos, cada uno con 1 semilla.

    Género con ca 100 especies, casi todas del Nuevo Mundo; 2 especies se encuentran en Nicaragua. Otras 2 especies se encuentran en Centroamérica, una de las cuales podría ser encontrada en Nicaragua. V. rigida Spreng., nativa de Brasil y Argentina, pero naturalizada en México y Costa Rica, tiene las hojas serradas, subcordadas y amplexicaules y flores más grandes con el tubo de la corola ca 10 mm de largo y brácteas más largas que el cáliz. Dos especies de Glandularia, un género cercanamente emparentado, son cultivadas en Nicaragua como plantas ornamentales. Ambas tienen hojas pinnatífidas y flores grandes y vistosas con el tubo de la corola 9–18 mm de largo; G. tenuisecta (Briq.) Small, nativa de Sudamérica, tiene hojas más marcadamente pinnatífidas, el punto más ancho de la lámina no es más ancho que el pecíolo (hasta 1 mm), el cáliz es consistentemente estrigoso con algunas glándulas peltadas sésiles y las costas no diferenciadas (Garnier 615, Guzmán 22); G. bipinnatifida (Nutt.) Nutt., nativa del suroeste de los Estados Unidos y México, tiene las hojas mucho más anchas que los pecíolos (4–7 mm) y el cáliz consistentemente estrigoso con algunos tricomas glandulares y costas prominentes (Araquistain 43, Ruiz 13). Verbena andrieuxii Schauer, citada por Moldenke para Nicaragua, es aquí tratada como un sinónimo de G. bipinnatifida. Uno de los especímenes examinados, Guzmán 1784, tal vez es un híbrido de G. bipinnatifida.

    L. Perry. A revision of the North American species of Verbena. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 20: 239–362. 1933; H. Moldenke. Materials towards a monograph of the genus Verbena. I. Phytologia 8: 95–104, II. 8: 108–152. 1961, III. 8: 175–216, IV. 8: 230–272, V. 8: 274–323, VI. 8: 371–384, VII. 8: 395–453. 1962, VIII. 8: 460–496, IX. 9: 8–54, X. 9: 59–97, XI. 9: 113–181, XII. 9: 189–238, XIII. 9: 267–336. 1963, XIV. 9: 351–407, XV. 9: 459–480, XVI. 9: 501–505, XVII. 10: 56–88, XVIII. 10: 89–161, XIX. 10: 173–236, XX. 10: 271–319, XXI. 10: 406–416, XXII. 10: 490–504, XXIII. 11: 1–68, XXIV. 11: 80–142, XXV. 11: 155–213. 1964, XXVI. 11: 219–287, XXVII. 11: 290–357, XXVIII. 11: 400–422. 1965; N. Troncoso. Dilucidación de las especies platenses de Glandularia (Verbenáceas) de hojas disectas. Darwiniana 13: 468–485. 1964; R. Umber. The genus Glandularia (Verbenaceae) in North America. Syst. Bot. 4: 72–102. 1979.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 11
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    Herbs, sometimes slightly woody basally; stems and branches procumbent, 3-scending, or erect, glabrous or variously pubescent. Leaves mostly decussate- Dpposite, rarely whorled, dentate (rarely entire) or variously lobed, incised, or pinnatifid. Inflorescences spicate; spikes terminal, usually densely many-flowered, Dften flat-topped and pseudo-umbellate or fasciculate-capitate, sometimes greatly elongate with densely crowded or scattered flowers, rarely also axillary, often greatly elongating only after anthesis. Flowers small or medium-sized, each solitary and axillary in a usually narrow bractlet; calyx usually tubular, 5-angled, 5-ribbed, unequally 5-toothed, not at all or but slightly changed in fruit, then herbaceous, mostly ventricose, eventually split, often connivent or contorted apically, thin-textured; corolla salverform or- funnelform, the tube cylindric, straight or curved, often slightly ampliate or subinflated apically, usually villous at the stamen-insertion within and barbate at the mouth, the limb flat, spreading or oblique, weakly 2-lipped, the lobes 5, usually elongate, more or less unequal, varying from obtuse or rounded to emarginate apically, the 2 posterior outermost and the anterior innermost in prefloration; stamens 4, didynamous, inserted in the upper half of the corolla-tube, included, the anthers ovate, with 2 parallel or slightly divergent thecae, dehiscing longitudinally, the dorsal connective un- appendaged and narrowly muticous or provided with a more or less conspicuous glandular appendage; gynoecium 2-carpelled, the ovary superior, entire or 4-lobed, apically situated on a somewhat lobed annular disc, completely 4-loculed even at anthesis, the ovules 1 per locule, attached laterally at or near the base, erect, anatropous; the style usually short and equaling the stamens, somewhat dilated, shortly 2-lobed or bifid apically, the anterior lobe or branch stigmatiferous and subpulvinate-papillose, the posterior lobe or branch smooth and horny and non- stigmatiferous, not as broad as the anterior. Fruit mostly enclosed by the mature calyx, schizocarpous, the pericarp hard and dry, readily separating at maturity into 4, 1-seeded linear or linear-oblong (rarely elliptic-winged) crustaceous nut- lets; seeds 4, erect, oblong, triangular in cross-section, without or with negligible endosperm, the outer face convex, the cotyledons 2, thick, applicate.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    "Fls in spikes (or heads) ending the stem and branches; cal tubular, 5-angled and unequally 5-toothed, persistent, scarcely changing in fr; cor salverform or funnelform, the tube straight or curved, the limb flat, weakly 2-lipped, with 5 obtuse or emarginate lobes; stamens 4, paired, included; anther-connective often with a glandular appendage; style terminal, shortly 2-lobed, only one lobe stigmatic; ovary with 4 uniovulate chambers, often rather shallowly 4-lobed, separating at maturity into 4 nutlets, these often ridged or reticulate; ours herbs. (Glandularia) 250, mostly New World."

  • Provided by: [B].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 13
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    Morphology

    Fruit splitting into 4 nutlets at maturity, enveloped in the persistent calyx

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Nutlets with inner face often scabridulous or granulate.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Calyx tubular, distinctly and ± unequally (4–)5-toothed, 5-ribbed

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Corolla funnel-shaped or hypocrateriform; tube straight or ± curved, ± pubescent within; limb 5-lobed, ± spreading, feebly to distincdy 2-lipped

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Stamens (2–)4(–5), included, usually inserted near the middle of the tube but sometimes higher, didynamous

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Ovary entire or 4-lobed, 4-locular with a single ovule in each locule; style slender but ± short; stigma unequally 2-lobed

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Flowers in simple spikes or panicles of spikes, often dense and compact or more elongate and lax, bracteate, terminal

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite or sometimes in whorls of 3, simple and dentate or deeply divided, rarely entire

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Annual or perennial herbs, small shrubs, woody climbers or trees.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Stems 4-angled, erect ascending or procumbent, glabrous or hairy.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Inflorescences spicate with the spikes terminal, sometimes axillary, simple or corymbosely or paniculately arranged; spikes densely crowded, or elongate with distant flowers.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite and usually decussate, rarely 3-whorled or alternate, dentate, or often incised or variously lobed or partite, rarely entire.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Ovary 2-carpellate, entire or slightly lobed at the apex, 4-locular at anthesis, each locule l-ovulate; ovules anatropous, erect, attached laterally at or near the base; style usually equalling the stamens, divided at the apex into a short, stigmatic anterior lobe and an acute horny sterile posterior tooth.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Calyx tubular, 5-angled and ribbed on the angles, unequally 5-toothed, ± dilated at the base in the fruiting stage and then ventricose, eventually splitting.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Flowers small or medium-sized, sessile, each solitary in the axil of a narrow bract.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Stamens 4, included, didynamous; filaments inserted about or above the middle of the corolla tube; anthers ovate, with parallel or diverging thecae without appendages, or the connectives of upper 2 stamens each provided with a clavate or glanduliform appendage.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Seeds oblong; endosperm lacking or scanty.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Fruit a schizocarp, enclosed within the persistent calyx, separating when ripe into four 1-seeded mericarps; mericarps linear or oblong, with dry pericarp, longitudinally ribbed with a raised reticulation toward the apex.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Corolla funnel-shaped or hypocrateriform; tube straight or curved, cylindric or widening slightly towards the apex, usually villous within particularly at the mouth and about the insertion of the filaments; limb spreading, oblique, weakly 2-lipped, with unequal obtuse lobes, rounded or emarginate at the apex.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Herbs

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    A complex genus of 392 specific and subspecific taxa native to temperate and tropical America, two species native to the Mediterranean region and the Near East, and introduced elsewhere in the Old World.

  • Provided by: [A].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Included Species

     Information From

    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • G
    Verbenaceae
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).