Sanicula L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 235. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Sanicula L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000033943. Accessed on: 27 Oct 2020'

General Information

32. Sanicula L.

Por L. Constance y J. Affolter.

Hierbas perennes o bianuales, bajas o erectas, ramificadas, con raíces fusiformes o tuberosas o con órganos subterráneos. Hojas principalmente basales o alternas, pecioladas, membranáceas, profundamente palmado- o pinnado-divididas o compuestas a rara vez simples y enteras; pecíolos envainadores. Inflorescencia capitada, las cabezuelas o umbelas compactas polígamas o sólo estaminadas, generalmente numerosas, en cimas o racimos; involucro de brácteas enteras o lobadas o más largas o más cortas que las cabezuelas. Flores bisexuales, sésiles o estipitadas, las estaminadas generalmente pediceladas, sin bractéolas subyacentes. Lobos del cáliz conspicuos, persistentes, a veces connatos; pétalos principalmente amarillos, blanco-verdosos o purpúreos, ovados a espatulados, con un ápice inflexo más angosto; estilos más largos o más cortos que el cáliz, el estilopodio comprimido o ausente. Frutos oblongo-ovoides a globosos, escasamente comprimidos lateralmente y angostos en la comisura; mericarpos subteretes, densamente cubierto por tubérculos, aguijones o escamas; carpóforo ausente; costillas obsoletas; vitas conspicuas o inconspicuas, dispuestas regular o irregularmente; semillas de cara plana o sulcada. Aprox. 40 spp. Regiones templadas o cálido húmedas del mundo, excepto Australia y Nueva Zelanda; particularmente abundante en el continente Americano y E. de Asia.

Bibliografía: Shan, R.H. y Constance, L. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 25: 1-78 (1951).

La única especie en Mesoamérica es Sanicula liberta.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    SANICULA L.

    Sanicula liberta Cham. & Schltdl., Linnaea 1: 353. 1826.

    Hierbas perennes o bianuales, ramificadas, foliosas, esencialmente glabras, 1–6 dm de alto. Hojas orbiculares a pentagonales, 2.5–10 cm de diámetro, palmadamente 3–5-partidas, con divisiones ovado-lanceoladas a obovadas, acuminadas, lobadas y espinuloso-serradas; pecíolo envainador, más largo que la lámina. Inflorescencias capítulos con 8–15 flores de las cuales 1–3 son flores perfectas y subsésiles y el resto flores estaminadas y filiforme-pediceladas, involucro inconspicuo, flores blanco-amarillentas o blanco-verdosas; cáliz con dientes lanceolados, acuminados, parcialmente ocultos por los acúleos del fruto; pétalos con el ápice delgado e inflexo; estilopodio y carpóforo obsoletos. Fruto subgloboso, 2–4 mm de diámetro, ligeramente comprimido lateralmente, las costillas obsoletas, la superficie densamente uncinado-aculeada, vitas irregulares o inconspicuas.

    Localmente común, en nebliselvas en la zona norcentral; 900–1550 m; fl y fr durante todo el año; Croat 42929, Stevens 21131; México a Bolivia. Un género circumboreal con ca 40 especies, particularmente abundantes en las Américas y en el este de Asia.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Perennial or biennial, glabrous, or pubescent herbs from taproots, rootstocks, tubers, or fascicled roots; stems (sometimes obsolete) erect to rarely decumbent, simple or branched, the leaves petiolate, lobed or divided to decompound, rarely entire, the petiole sheathing; inflorescence of cymosely, umbellately, or panicu- lately arranged small heads subtended by a foliaceous involucre, the flowers perfect and staminate, white, yellow, or purple, the petals with an inflexed apex, the calyx very prominent and persistent; stylopodium lacking, the styles short to elongate, a carpophore lacking; fruit somewhat compressed laterally and densely tuberculate, scaly, or bristly, sessile or stipitate, the ribs obsolete, the vittae irregularly arranged, prominent to obscure; seed subterete or flattened dorsally, often sulcate beneath the vittae, its face flat to concave or sulcate.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Herbs biennial or perennial. Stem erect, ascending or rarely decumbent, glabrous (Chinese species). Leaves petiolate, sheaths generally membranous, or subsessile; blade orbicular, round-cordate or cordate-pentagonal, palmately 3–5-parted and often lobed, margin serrate or doubly setose-serrate. Umbels simple or compound; peduncles racemous, cymous or corymbose-branched; bracts foliaceous, usually serrate; bracteoles small, entire, rarely lobed; umbellules with both sessile or subsessile, bisexual flowers and pedicellate, staminate flowers. Calyx teeth prominent, connate and persistent. Petals white, greenish white, pale yellow, purple or pale blue, spatulate or obovate with a narrowly inflexed apex. Stylopodium absent or discoid-flat; styles shorter than or exceeding the calyx teeth, recurved. Fruit long-ellipsoid or subglobose, densely covered with uncinate or straight bristles, or tubercles; ribs inconspicuous or slightly prominent; vittae distinct or obscure, irregularly arranged on the dorsal and lateral surfaces, usually 3 on commissure. Seed-face concave or sulcate. Carpophore absent.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    "Fr ovoid or oblong to subglobose, slightly flattened laterally, not readily separating into mericarps, densely covered with hooked bristles sometimes arranged in rows; ribs obsolete; oil-tubes in our spp. (except no. 5) solitary in the intervals, 2–3 on the commissure; umbel irregular, with unequal spreading primary branches, the umbellets dense or subcapitate, commonly with 3 sessile or short-pedicellate perfect fls, their ovary bristly, and several staminate fls with smooth ovary, these all or chiefly on much longer pedicels; sep relatively well developed, narrow, connate at base, persistent; pet greenish-white to greenish-yellow; stylopodium wanting; stems in our spp. arising from a cluster of fibrous or fleshy-fibrous roots; lvs palmately divided into 3–5(–7) broad segments, the basal long-petioled, the cauline progressively reduced and less petiolate; invol foliaceous. 40, nearly cosmop."

  • Provided by: [E].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Perennial or more rarely biennial herbs

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Leaves ternate, palmatipartite or pinnate, rarely undivided

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Umbels simple, sometimes arranged to appear as if compound, in a dichasially branched cyme or more rarely racemosely arranged; involucre presentCalyx-teeth conspicuous, free to ± connate

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Flowers polygamous, the outer few–many ♂, the inner (generally few) hermaphrodite, occasionally some umbels entirely ♂

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Petals white to yellowish, pink tinged or bluish, emarginate above with an incurved lobule

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Fruit globose to oblong-ovoid, not compressed, covered with prickles, scales or tubercles, the prickles often expanded below, straight or uncinate, sometimes connate at the base; mericarps not to distinctly narrowed to the commissure; primary ribs obsolete; vittae on the dorsal surface 3–many, on the commissural face usually 2; stylopodia flattened, concave or obscure; carpophore none

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Endosperm rounded dorsally, flattened to ± excavate on the commissural face.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Leaves petiolate, subsessile, usually somewhat coriaceous, palmately to pinnately divided; petioles with sheathing bases.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Styles short or long and spreading.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Partial umbels with hermaphrodite and male flowers, the hermaphrodite one frequently distinctly pedicellate, the male ones sessile to subsessile.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence of rather irregular compound umbels with few, unequal rays.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Stem usually branched in a pseudodichotomous manner.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Vittae both large and small, regularly or irregularly arranged.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Seed plane or concave on the commissural face.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Stylopodium depressed or obsolete.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Fruit ovoid, densely covered with prickles or tubercles.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Erect, rarely decumbent herbs, biennial or perennial.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Habit

    herb

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

     Information From

    Apiaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).