Roystonea O.F. Cook
  • Science, n.s. 12(300): 479. 1900. (28 Sept 1900)
  • Royal palm palm, palmier royal [for Roy Stone, 1836--1905]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Roystonea O.F. Cook. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000033565. Accessed on: 20 Feb 2020'

General Information

Stems solitary, erect, greater than 20 cm in diam., smooth, unarmed. Leaves: leaf bases unarmed, forming crownshaft, crownshaft prominent, green, smooth; petiole unarmed; blade pinnate; plication reduplicate; segments linear-lanceolate, in more than 1 plane. Inflorescences axillary below crown of leaves, paniculate, with 2 or 3 orders of branching; prophyll tubular; peduncular bract greatly exceeding prophyll, leathery, splitting longitudinally on abaxial side and circumscissilly at base; rachillae covered with copious caducous dendritic trichomes, becoming glabrous. Flowers unisexual, sessile, in triads of 1 pistillate flower flanked by 2 staminate flowers. Staminate flowers: sepals 3, imbricate, membranaceous; petals 3, valvate; stamens 6(--10, rarely); anthers dorsifixed, often twisting upon drying; pistillode minute, obscurely 3-cleft. Pistillate flowers globose to conic; sepals 3, imbricate; petals 3, basally connate, distally valvate; staminodes 6, basally connate, adnate to corolla basally; pistil 1; ovules 1; style indistinct; stigmas 3. Fruits drupes, fibrous; stigmatic scar basal; exocarp ripening from green to red to purplish black at maturity, thin, leathery; mesocarp fleshy, oily; endocarp hard. Seeds 1, nearly globose [obovoid], dorsiventrally compressed, abaxially attached to endocarp; endosperm homogeneous; embryo basal; eophyll undivided, linear-lanceolate. x n = 18.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    ROYSTONEA O.F. Cook

    Por Carmen Ulloa Ulloa

    Roystonea dunlapiana P.H. Allen, Ceiba 3: 15. 1952.

    Palmas solitarias, inermes; tallos columnares, hasta 20 m de alto y ca 40 cm de diámetro, gris-blanquecinos, anillados; plantas monoicas. Hojas 12–15, pinnadas, ca 2 m de largo, las inferiores colgantes; pinnas numerosas, linear a linear-lanceoladas en 2 hileras a lo largo del raquis y patentes en diferentes planos, dando una apariencia plumosa a la hoja; vaina tubular, grande y prominente, pecíolo relativamente corto. Inflorescencias infrafoliares, ca 100 cm de largo y de ancho, masivas, con hasta 3 órdenes de ramificación, cuando en yema el interior llena de tricomas blancos que caen al abrirse la bráctea, bráctea peduncular ca 200 cm de largo, coriácea, raquis más largo que el pedúnculo; raquillas largas, ca 40 cm de largo, delgadas, con brácteas arregladas en espiral abrazando tríades de flores proximalmente y flores estaminadas en pares o solitarias distalmente, sépalos libres; flores estaminadas casi simétricas y más grandes que las pistiladas, pétalos libres, valvados, estambres 6, pistilodio diminuto; flores pistiladas desconocidas. Frutos obovoides, 1.2–1.4 cm de largo y 0.8–1 cm de ancho, negro-purpúreos, residuo estigmático casi basal, epicarpo liso, mesocarpo con fibras cercanas al endocarpo, endocarpo delgado, frágil; semilla elipsoidal, embrión casi basal, eofilo linear-lanceolado.

    Conocida en Nicaragua por una colección ( Allen 6479) de bosques húmedos, zona atlántica; 10–20 m; costa de México, Honduras y Nicaragua. Otra especie, probablemente R. regia (Kunth) O.F. Cook, se cultiva en la zona pacífica; se diferencia de R. dunlapiana por tener la bráctea peduncular más corta que el pseudocaule formado por las bases de las vainas de las hojas. Género con ca 10 especies distribuidas en la costa caribeña del sur de Estados Unidos (Florida) México, Centroamérica, norte de Sudamérica y en las Antillas.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Very tall majestic columnar monoecious spineless feather palms, bearing a long crownshaft- at apex of woody bole and at the base of it clusters of flowers and fruits, that is inflorescence and infructescence infrafoliar; trunk variously swollen, lightly ringed: leaves caducous from base of crownshaft; crown comprised of a large spreading or drooping canopy of many long leaves with drooping narrow pinnae and at the apex a long projecting sword-like unfolded new leaf: spadices at first erect or ascending, usually 2 or more together, comprised of 2 cymbae or spathes that eventually open on one side to liberate the cluster and to discharge the abundant meal (not pollen) within, one cymba falling early and often not ob- served, the inner much longer pointed cymba falling later with a crash or often hanging as a dead dry stave; spadix much branched, white, mealy, eventually be- coming glabrous or retaining more or less pubescence: flowers scattered on the rachillae, not sunken, normally 1 pistillate between 2 staminates; sepals 3, very short, imbricate; petals longer, valvate; stamens mostly 6; pistil of 3 carpels, only 1 of which commonly develops into a globular or bean-like drupe-like 1-seeded fruit not exceeding about 2 cm. in longest diameter, the more or less pulpy sarco- carp providing food for pigs; micropyle and embryo basal.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Six or seven species in the West Indies, one of them also in southern Florida.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • 3
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Cook, O. F. 1936. Royal palms in upper Florida. Science, ser. 2, 84: 60--61. Reynoso, F. A. 1976. Importancia económica de la palma real dominicana (Roystonea hispaniolana). Agroconocimiento 1: 8--9. Ruebens, C. 1968. Industrialización del palmiche en Cuba. Industr. Alimenticia 1: 8--25. Small, J. K. 1937. Facts and fancies about our royal palm. J. New York Bot. Gard. 38: 49--58. Zanoni, T. A. 1991. The royal palm on the island of Hispaniola. Principes 35: 49--54. Zona, S. 1991. Notes on Roystonea in Cuba. Principes 35: 225--233. Zona, S. 1996. Roystonea (Arecaceae: Arecoideae). In: Organization for Flora Neotropica. 1968+. Flora Neotropica. 75+ nos. New York. No. 71, pp.1--36.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Royal palm palm, palmier royal [for Roy Stone, 1836--1905]
    Royal Palm

     Information From

    Arecaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).