Momordica L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 1009. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Balsam-apple, bitter melon, cundeamor [Latin mordicus, biting, alluding to sculptured seed surfaces and margins, appearing as though bitten]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Momordica L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000024602. Accessed on: 27 Nov 2020'

General Information

Plants annual [perennial], monoecious [dioecious], climbing or trailing; stems glabrous or hairy; roots fibrous; tendrils unbranched [2-branched]. Leaves simple or compound; blade broadly ovate or reniform to orbiculate, palmately 3–7[–9]-lobed, usually pedate, lobes broadly ovate, rhombic-ovate, ovate-oblong, or ovate-elliptic, margins coarsely and widely dentate to crenate-dentate or sinuate-dentate, [mucronulate-dentate or remotely denticulate], surfaces eglandular. Inflorescences: staminate flowers solitary, [corymbose, racemose, or umbellate], axillary; pistillate flowers solitary, from different axils than staminate; ; bracts , ovate-cordate, reniform, or orbiculate-cordate [ovate, rhombic-ovate]. Flowers: hypanthium obconic; sepals 5, linear to ovate-lanceolate or ovate-acuminate; petals 5, distinct, yellow to bright yellow [greenish yellow], obovate or oblong [suborbiculate], [5–]7–25[–32] mm, glabrous, corolla rotate to broadly and shallowly campanulate. Staminate flowers: stamens (2–)3; filaments inserted near hypanthium rim, staminodes absent or 3, glandular. Fruits berrylike or capsular, , red or red-orange to yellow-orange, oblong-fusiform to ellipsoidal, cylindric or ovoid, beaked, fleshy, thick-walled, irregularly tuberculate to muricate, muriculate, or irregularly smooth-ridged, , apically dehiscent by 3 valves [indehiscent or irregularly dehiscent]. Seeds 10–50, oblong to ovoid-oblong beyond narrowed base, turgid or flattened, red-arillate, margins grooved, surfaces smooth or sculptured. x = 11, 14.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Herbs, annual or perennial, scandent or creeping. Tendrils unbranched or 2-fid. Petiole usually glandular; leaf blade suborbicular or ovate-cordate, palmately 3-7-lobed, rarely undivided, entire or dentate. Plants dioecious or monoecious. Male flowers solitary or in a raceme; pedicel often with a large bract; bract orbicular-reniform; calyx tube short, campanulate or cupular; segments ovate, lanceolate, or oblong-lanceolate; corolla yellow or white, rotate or broadly campanulate, 5-lobed; segments obovate, oblong, or ovate-oblong; stamens (2 or)3(or 5); filaments short, free; anthers coherent at first, one 1-celled, other 2-celled; anther cells reflexed, straight, or curved; connective not produced; rudimentary ovary glandular or absent. Female flowers: ovary oblong or fusiform; style elongate; stigmas 3, undivided or 2-lobed; ovules numerous, horizontal. Fruit ovoid, oblong, elliptic, or fusiform, undivided or 3-valved, usually verrucose or spinescent. Seeds few or numerous, ovate or oblong, smooth or reticulate.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    19. Momordica L.

    Por R.J. Hampshire.

    Bejucos, delgados, monoicos, probablemente anuales; tallos sulcados. Hojas pecioladas, profundamente lobadas. Zarcillos simples. Inflorescencias axilares, las flores amarillas. Flores solitarias (en Mesoamérica), axilares, pedunculadas; hipanto cupulado o cortamente infundibuliforme; lobos del cáliz 5; corola campanulada, los lobos 5, libres; estambres 3, los filamentos libres, las anteras connatas, las tecas flexuosas. Flores pistiladas con el perianto como en las flores estaminadas; ovario alargado fusiforme, constricto en la base y el ápice, los óvulos numerosos, horizontales; estilo delgado; estigmas 3, 2-lobados. Frutos (Mesoamérica) fusiformes, carnosos, 3-valvados; semillas túrgidas o comprimidas. Aprox. 50 spp. Regiones tropicales y subtropicales del Viejo Mundo, especialmente de África; 1 sp. introducida.

    La única especie en Mesoamérica es Momordica charantia .

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
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    MOMORDICA L.

    Momordica charantia L., Sp. Pl. 1009. 1753.

    Plantas anuales, trepadoras o rastreras, delgadas a robustas; tallos acostillados, casi glabros a crespo-pubescentes o vellosos; monoicas. Hojas de contorno ampliamente ovado a circular, 1–15 cm de largo y 2–16 cm de ancho, cordadas, membranosas, crespo-pubescentes o híspidas a casi glabras, profundamente 3–7-palmatilobadas, los lobos graciosamente recurvados, el central más grande, ampliamente obovado a elíptico o lanceolado, sinuado-lobulado o sinuado, denticulado, apiculado; pecíolos 0.4–8.5 cm de largo, casi glabros a vellosos; zarcillos no ramificados. Flores solitarias y axilares; flores estaminadas en pedúnculos 0.6–4.5 cm de largo, apicalmente bracteados, bráctea sésil, redondeada, 1–16 mm de largo y 1–22 mm de ancho, apiculada, cordada, verde, distante de la flor, pedicelos excediendo el pedúnculo, 2.2–9.2 cm de largo, hipanto campanulado-obcónico, 2–5.5 mm de largo, sépalos 5, ovados, 2.5–6 mm de largo, cortamente acuminados, pétalos 5, libres, obovado-oblongos, 7–20 mm de largo, amarillos, estambres 3, anteras cohesionadas, tecas 3-plegadas; flores pistiladas en pedicelos de 0.5–7.5 cm de largo, pedicelos frecuentemente con una bráctea pequeña en su mitad inferior, hipanto muy corto, sépalos lanceolados, 1.5–5 mm de largo, pétalos 6–13 mm de largo, ovario elipsoide, rostrado, tuberculado, 6–12 mm de largo, placentas 3, óvulos numerosos, horizontales, estigmas 3. Fruto elipsoide, 2–12.5 cm de largo y 1–4 cm de ancho, rostrado, tuberculado, carnoso, péndulo, anaranjado, dehiscente en 3 valvas cuando maduro, pedúnculo 1–12 cm de largo; semillas oblongas, 8–14 mm de largo, 4.2–8.2 mm de ancho y 2–3.5 mm de grueso, cuando frescas envueltas en una pulpa rojo brillante, cafés, sus caras labradas.

    Muy común como maleza en todas las zonas del país, especialmente abundante en los márgenes de lagos; 0–1000 m; fl y fr durante todo el año; Araquistain 1862, Guzmán 1516; nativa de los Paleotrópicos, a veces cultivada, naturalizada en América tropical. Un género paleotropical con cerca de 40 especies. "Comida de culebra", "Sorosí".

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 11
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    Monoecious or rarely dioecious, tendriled, scandent or prostrate vines; stems 5-sulcate. Leaves petiolate, simple or 3- to 9-foliolate; tendrils simple or 2- branched. Staminate flowers in corymbs, racemes, or solitary, axillary; calyx campanulate, cupulate, or funnel-shaped, 5-lobate; corolla 5-lobate, rotate, or campanulate; stamens 3, rarely 2, the filaments free, the anthers connate, the thecas flexuous, forming an irregular head, ultimately free, 1 theca unilocular, 2 thecas bilocular. Pistillate flowers solitary, axillary; calyx and corolla as in the staminate flowers, ovary oblong or fusiform, 3-carpellate, each carpel few to many ovulate, ovules horizontal, the styles 3, connate, the stigmas 3, each bilo- bate. Fruit oblong, fusiform, or cylindrical, indehiscent or 3-valvate, often tuber- culate or echinate; seeds turgid or compressed, the testa smooth, rugose, or rarely sculptured.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Prostrate or scandent, usually herbaceous plants.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Leaves simple or pedately ternately or 2-ternately 3–21-foliolate.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Tendrils simple or 2-fid.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Male flowers solitary, umbellate, shortly racemose or fasciculate, often bracteate; bracts often prominent, more or less cucullate. Receptacle-tube relatively short and broad; lobes entire. Petals 5, free, entire, obtuse to rounded or sometimes retuse, 1–3 with a ventral incurved scale at the base. Stamens 3, two 2-thecous and one 1-thecous, or less often 2, one 3-thecous and the other 2-thecous, free or sometimes with the anthers connate into a head; thecae arcuate, sinuate or triplicate.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Flowers white, cream, yellow or orange, monoecious or dioecious.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Female flowers solitary, perianth similar to that of male flower but receptacle-tube usually much shorter and lobes often narrower and smaller; ovary ribbed, tuberculate or papillose, rarely smooth; ovules usually many, horizontal, less often few, pendulous and/or erect; stigma 3-lobed.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Fruit ellipsoid to fusiform, tuberculate, spiny, winged or ribbed, rarely smooth, indehiscent or dehiscent into 3 valves and exposing seeds enveloped in bright red pulp.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
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    Seeds usually compressed, with sculptured faces and grooved margins with a slight erose median ridge.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Flowers medium to large, white, cream or yellow, monoecious or dioecious

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Tendrils simple or proximally bifid, rarely paired at the nodes and then usually spinose

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Probracts usually absent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Small to rather large climbers or trailers

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Leaves simple, or pedately 3–7- or pedately biternately 7–15-foliolate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Female flowers solitary; ovary usually ribbed, tuberculate or papillose; ovules usually many, horizontal, less often few and pendulous and/or erect; stigma 3-lobed

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Male flowers solitary, umbellate or shortly racemose, or in many-flowered fascicles or pseudopanicles, often subtended by a prominent suborbicular sessile sheathing bract; receptacle-tube relatively short and broad; lobes entire; petals 5, free, entire, 1–3 with an incurved scale inside at the base; stamens 3 (2 double 2-thecous, 1 single 1-thecous) or 2 (1 triple (2–)3-thecous, 1 double 2-thecous), usually free; thecae arcuate, duplicate or triplicate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Fruit rather large, ovoid-ellipsoid to elongate-fusiform, fleshy, ornamented with fleshy tubercles, spines or longitudinal wings or ridges, less often merely bluntly angled or subterete, indehiscent or dehiscent ± irregularly or often by 3 valves, and then exposing the seeds enveloped in scarlet pulp hanging from the faces of the valves

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Seeds medium-sized to rather large, usually compressed, the testa nearly always ± sculptured on the faces and 1–2-grooved at the margins

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Figs. 2, p. 18, 3, p. 25.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 7
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    Plantes'herbacées, monoïques ou dioïques, à tiges grimpantes ou rampantes.'Feuilles'le plus souvent pétiolées; limbe entier, ± profondément lobé ou 3-5-foliolé; vrilles simples ou bifides, exceptionnellement au nombre de 2 à chaque nœud et transformées alors en épines; probractées généralement présentes.'Fleurs'de taille moyenne, rarement grandes, crème ou jaunes.'Fleurs'♂ en ombelles, racèmes, fascicules ou pseudofascicules, souvent axillées ou enveloppées dans une bractée sessile et suborbiculaire, pouvant être dans des positions variées sur le pédoncule de l'inflorescence ou sur le pédicelle de la fleur solitaire; réceptacle campanulé, cupuliforme ou infundibuliforme; sépales 5, entiers, aigus ou obtus; corolle rotacée ou campanulée, rarement zygomorphe, le plus souvent à 5 lobes ovales-oblongs; 2 ou 3 pétales munis à leur base interne d'une écaille en onglet, parfois 2 ou 3 pétales colorés de noir ou de brun violet à leur base; étamines généralement 3 (2 biloculaires et 1 uniloculaire) ou 2 (1 biloculaire et 1 triloculaire), insérées sur le bord du réceptacle; loges en S renversé ou droites ou légèrement courbées; connectif large mais non prolongé audessus des loges; pistillode nul ou glanduliforme.'Fleurs'♀ solitaires; périanthe semblable à celui des fleurs ♂; ovaire oblong, fusiforme ou cylindrique, côtelé, hérissé de tubercules ou de papilles, à 3 placentas; ovules ± nombreux.'Baies'déhiscentes par valves ou indéhiscentes, ellipsoïdales ou fusiformes-allongées, lisses ou ornementées de tubercules, d'épines, d'ailes ou de côtes longitudinales, ou lisses, renfermant de nombreuses graines entourées d'une pulpe généralement rouge.'Graines de taille moyenne ou assez grande, épaisses ou comprimées; testa ± ornementé sur les 2 faces, à 1-2 cannelures sur les marges.\n\t\t\t\tGenre de l'Ancien Monde comprenant une quarantaine d'espèces, la plupart d'Afrique. Pour la Flore : 12 espèces.

  • Provided by: [I].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 13
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    Habit

    vines

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Momordica is a genus of about 60 species native to the Old World tropics and subtropics.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 12
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    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCE Schaefer, H. and S. S. Renner. 2010. A three-genome phylogeny of Momordica (Cucurbitaceae) suggests seven returns from dioecy to monoecy and recent long-distance dispersal to Asia. Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 54: 553–560.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Balsam-apple, bitter melon, cundeamor [Latin mordicus, biting, alluding to sculptured seed surfaces and margins, appearing as though bitten]

     Information From

    Cucurbitaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • I http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).