Trees or shrubs evergreen, monoecious or dioecious; bark thin, exfoliating in long strips; branchlets not arranged in a plane, terete or 3-, 4-, or 6-angled in cross section. Leaves decussate or in whorls of 3, decurrent or non-decurrent; juvenile leaves always needlelike; adult leaves scalelike or needlelike, usually not dimorphic along branchlets but sometimes different on juvenile and adult branchlets, with 1 or 2 pale stomatal bands adaxially, or in addition a few stomata near base abaxially. Pollen cones yellow, ovoid or oblong; microsporophylls 6-16, each with 2-8 pollen sacs. Seed cones terminal or axillary, berrylike, globose or ovoid, indehiscent or slightly dehiscent when mature in (1st or)2nd(or 3rd) year; cone scales connate or fused, succulent; each fertile scale bearing 1-3 seeds; free bract apex a small point. Seeds 1-6(-10) per cone, wingless, usually with resin pits. Cotyledons 2-6.
Shrubs or trees evergreen. Branchlets terete, 3--6 angled, variously oriented, but not in flattened sprays. Leaves opposite in 4 ranks or in whorls of 3. Adult leaves closely appressed to divergent, scalelike to subulate, free portion to ca. 10 mm (to ca. 15 mm in Juniperus communis ); abaxial gland visible or not, elongate to hemispheric ( J . ashei ), sometimes exuding white crystalline deposit. Pollen cones with 3--7 pairs or trios of sporophylls, each sporophyll with 2--8 pollen sacs. Seed cones maturing in 1 or 2 years, globose to ovoid and berrylike, 3--20 mm, remaining closed, usually glaucous; scales persistent, 1--3 pairs, peltate, tightly coalesced, thick and fleshy or fibrous to obscurely woody. Seeds 1--3 per scale, round to faceted, wingless; cotyledons 2--6. x = 11.
"Female cones indehiscent, berry-like or drupe-like, usually colored (commonly bluish), the several scales coalescent and somewhat fleshy at maturity; seeds 1–10 per cone, wingless; male cones with numerous microsporophylls; dioecious or occasionally monoecious shrubs or small trees with scale-like or needle-like lvs opposite or whorled in 3’s; 2n=22. 60, mainly N. Temp."
Male cones of several rounded decussate scales bearing 2–6 pollen-sacs.
Female strobili on short lateral shoots, of 2–8 usually decussate fleshy scales each bearing one ovule; mature strobilus a berry-like fruit, the scales swollen, fleshy and confluent.
Leaves usually decussate, elliptic, appressed, imbricate and small on mature plants but subulate and spreading on juveniles.
Evergreen trees or shrubs, monoecious or dioecious.
Cones on short branchlets or males axillary, of rounded, shield-shaped scales bearing 2–6 pollen sacs; females of 2–4 series of scales in pairs or whorls of 3, each with 1–2 ovules; mature cone fleshy, with few to 1 seed with woody testa.
Adams, R. P. 1969. Chemosystematic and Numerical Studies in Natural Populations of Juniperus. Ph.D. thesis. University of Texas. Adams, R. P., E. von Rudloff, and L. Hogge. 1983. Chemosystematic studies of the western North American junipers based on their volatile oils. Biochem. Syst. & Ecol. 11: 85--89. Adams, R. P. and T. A. Zanoni. 1979. The distribution, synonymy, and taxonomy of three junipers of the southwest United States and northern Mexico. SouthW. Naturalist 24: 323--330. Fassett, N. C. 1945. Juniperus virginiana, J. horizontalis, and J. scopulorum. V. Taxonomic treatment. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 72: 480--482. Hall, M. T. 1952. Variation and hybridization in Juniperus. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 39: 1--64. Van Haverbeke, D. F. 1968. A population study of Juniperus in the Missouri River basin. Univ. Nebraska Stud., n. s. 38: 1--82. Vasek, F. C. 1966. The distribution and taxonomy of three western junipers. Brittonia 18: 350--372. Zanoni, T. A. 1978. The American junipers of the section Sabina (Juniperus, Cupressaceae)---A century later. Phytologia 38: 433--454. Zanoni, T. A. and R. P. Adams. 1979. The genus Juniperus (Cupressaceae) in Mexico and Guatemala: Synonymy, key, and distributions of the taxa. Bol. Soc. Bot. México 38: 83--131.
|Juniper, cedar, redcedar, cedro, sabino [Latin juniperus, name for juniper]|