Jatropha L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 1006. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • [Greek iatros, physician, and trophe, food, alluding to use of J. curcas as purgative]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Jatropha L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000019533. Accessed on: 29 Mar 2020'

General Information

Herbs, subshrubs, shrubs, or trees, perennial, monoecious or dioecious [gynodioecious]; hairs unbranched, sometimes glandular, or absent; latex colorless, cloudy-whitish, yellow, or red. Leaves deciduous or persistent, alternate but sometimes appearing fascicled, simple; stipules absent or present, persistent or deciduous; petiole absent or present, glands absent at apex, sometimes stipitate-glandular along length; blade unlobed or palmately lobed, margins entire, serrate, or dentate, laminar glands absent; venation pinnate or palmate. Inflorescences unisexual or bisexual (pistillate flowers central, staminate lateral), axillary or terminal, cymes or fascicles, or flowers solitary; glands subtending each bract 0. Pedicels present. Staminate flowers: sepals 5, imbricate, distinct or connate to 1/2 length; petals 5, distinct or connate basally to most of length, white, greenish yellow, pink, red, or purple [yellow, yellow-brown, orange, or 2-colored]; nectary extrastaminal, annular and 5-lobed or of 5 glands; stamens [6–]8 or 10 in 1–2 whorls, distinct or connate basally to most of length; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers: sepals 5, imbricate, distinct or connate to 1/2 length; petals 5, distinct or connate basally to most of length, white, greenish yellow, pink, red, or purple [yellow, yellow-brown, orange, or 2-colored]; nectary annular and 5-lobed or 5 glands; staminodes sometimes present; pistil 1–3-carpellate; styles (1–)3, distinct or connate basally to most of length [absent], 2-fid. Fruits capsules, ± fleshy, sometimes tardily dehiscent. Seeds ellipsoid to globose; caruncle present (sometimes rudimentary) or absent. x = 11.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    JATROPHA L.

    Por Grady L. Webster

    Arboles, arbustos o hierbas, a veces suculentos, tallos con látex pálido a coloreado; plantas monoicas o dioicas. Hojas alternas o subopuestas cuando están amontonadas en los brotes laterales, simples, no lobadas a palmatilobadas. Inflorescencias cimosas, axilares o terminales, largamente pedunculadas, flores con 5 sépalos imbricados; pétalos 5, disco anular a disecado; flores estaminadas con estambres 8–10, filamentos connados, pistilodio (en Nicaragua) ausente; flores pistiladas con ovario generalmente 3-locular, 1 óvulo por lóculo, estilos libres o connados, estigmas enteros o bífidos. Fruto capsular; semillas carunculadas.

    Género con ca 175 especies de América, Africa e India, mayormente en regiones secas tropicales o subtropicales; 7 especies en Nicaragua. Varias especies, especialmente J. curcas, han sido usadas como medicina; el aceite de las semillas de esta especie se usa como combustible y como laxante.

    B. Dehgan y G.L. Webster. Morphology and infrageneric relationships of the genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 74: 1–73. 1979; G.L. Webster y L.J. Poveda. A phytogeographically significant new species of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) from Costa Rica. Brittonia 30: 265–270. 1978.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Trees, shrubs, subshrubs, or herbs. Stems with laticifers, latex clear, white, or reddish; indumentum simple, sometimes glandular. Stipules persistent or deciduous, entire or setiform, or a series of stalked glands. Leaves alternate, unlobed or palmately lobed or parted, usually with glands at apex of petiole; venation palmate [or pinnate]. Flowers monoecious or dioecious in paniculate dichasia. Male flowers: sepals 5, imbricate, slightly connate at base; petals 5, imbricate, free, sometimes coherent or connate at base; disk glands 5, free or connate into ring; stamens 8-12, sometimes more, in 2-6 series; filaments at least partly connate, sometimes inner filaments connate into a column; pistillode filamentous or absent. Female flowers: sepals 5(or 6), free, imbricate, usually persistent in fruits; disk annular, lobed, or dissected, sometimes with staminodes; ovary 2- or 3(or 4 or 5)-locular; ovules 1 per locule; styles unlobed or bifid, sometimes dilated. Fruits capsular. Seeds carunculate; episperm crustaceous; endosperm fleshy; cotyledon broad and flat.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Trees, shrubs, or perennial herbs; monoecious or dioecious; stems with pale to distinctly colored latex. Leaves alternate, simple to lobed or divided, entire to conspicuously serrate; stipules often glandular or spinose. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, usually distinctly pedunculate, dichasial, 9 flowers at proximal dicho- tomies and fewer than the c. Staminate flowers with 5 sepals, ? imbricate; petals 5, imbricate, free or coherent to connate, greenish or white to red; disc entire or dissected into segments; stamens mostly 8-12, the filaments connate, the anthers usually in 2(-6) whorls, dehiscing longitudinally; pollen grains globose, inaper- turate, exine with massive hexagonal processes; pistillode reduced or absent. Pistillate flowers with 5 sepals, imbricate; petals as in d'; disc annular or dis- sected; ovary of usually 3 carpels (rarely 2, 4, or 5), smooth, the ovules 1 per locule, the styles connate below or free, entire or bifid. Fruits capsular (but some- times tardily dehiscent); seeds carunculate, with thin crustaceous testa, endosperm present, copious, the cotyledons broad, palmatinerved, the radicle short. A pantropical genus of perhaps 150 species, with about 70-80 represented in America; only one species (J. gossyp~iifolia) is native in Panama. In addition to the three species enumerated below, various others are doubtlessly cultivated in gardens and may possibly be found escaped. Jatropha podagrica Hooker was described from Panama on the basis-of a Seemann collection, but the original description makes it clear that this was a cultivated specimen; no indigenous Panamanian plants of the species have ever been discovered. From the Panamanian species described below, J. podagrica may easily be distinguished by its long- petioled peltate leaves, which are glaucous underneath.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
  • Hierbas perennes, arbustos o árboles, monoicos o dioicos, glabros o con indumento de tricomas simples o glandulares, la savia a veces coloreada; estípulas presentes, a veces glandulares o espinosas. Hojas alternas, el pecíolo sin glándulas; lámina simple, no lobulada o lobulada, de otra forma entera o aserrada. Infls. terminales o axilares, bisexuales o unisexuales, cimosas (raramente de 1 ó 2 fls.), pedunculadas. Fls. estaminadas con disco entero o partido; sépalos 5, imbricados; pétalos 5, separados o connatos basalmente; estambres 8–12, los filamentos connatos; pistiloide reducido o ausente. Fls. pistiladas con disco anular o disecado; sépalos 5, imbricados; pétalos 5, separados o connatos basalmente; ovario (2)3(–5)-locular; óvulos 1 por lóculo; estilos connatos basalmente o separados, enteros o bífidos. Frs. capsulares, inermes; semillas lisas, carunculadas. 

  • Provided by: [J].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
  • Morphology

    Female flowers: sepals and petals ± as in the ♂ flowers; staminodes sometimes present; disc annular, 5-lobed or composed of free glands; ovary (1–)2–3(–5)-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles connate at the base, spreading, entire or shortly bifid

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Fruit usually schizocarpic, ovoid or subglobose, dehiscing septicidally or loculicidally into 3 bivalved cocci, rarely subdrupaceous and ± indehiscent; endocarp crustaceous or indurated

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    Seeds ovoid or oblong, carunculate, the caruncle often much-divided, testa crustaceous, albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

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    Monoecious or rarely dioecious trees, shrubs, subshrubs or herbs with the stems arising from a thick perennial rootstock

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Indumentum simple, sometimes glandular

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Leaves alternate, crowded and fasciculate or laxly arranged, simple, generally palmatilobed, less commonly pinnatilobed or entire, petiolate or sessile, stipulate, the stipules usually multifid with setaceous segments, sometimes laciniate, sometimes rigid and spiny, and branched or not

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Inflorescences terminal or axillary, often corymbiform, dichotomously cymose, androgynous, protogynous, with a solitary ♀ flower terminating each major axis, lateral cymules ♂; bracts usually entire, sometimes glandular-fimbriate

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Male flowers: sepals (4–)5(–6), often ± connate at the base, imbricate; petals 5, free or ± coherent and then simulating a gamopetalous corolla, imbricate or contorted, rarely 0, in which case the calyx petaloid; disc entire or composed of 5 free glands; stamens 6–10, rarely more, commonly arranged in 2 distinct whorls (commonly 5 + 3) with those of the outer whorl opposite the petals, filaments partially fused into a column, anthers longitudinally dehiscent, staminodes (when present) filiform; pistillode 0

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Indumentum simple and/or glandular.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Leaves alternate, stipulate, petiolate or sessile, simple, entire, lobed or partitely divided, penninerved or palminerved.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Monoecious, rarely dioecious, trees shrubs subshrubs or herbs with the stems arising from a thick perennial rootstock.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Seeds usually shiny, carunculate, the caruncle usually bifid, fimbriate; testa crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Female flowers: calyx and petals more or less as in the male flowers; disk annular, 5-lobed, or sometimes of 5 free glands; staminodes (when present) filiform; ovary usually 3-locular, with 1 ovule per loculus; styles usually united at the base, erect or spreading, stigmas 3, usually bifid and somewhat tumid.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Fruit shallowly 3-lobed, dehiscing septicidally into 3 bivalved cocci, less often loculicidally into 3 valves, sometimes subdrupaceous, indehiscent; endocarp crustaceous or slightly woody; columella persistent.

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    Inflorescences terminal or subterminal, often corymbiform, cymose, androgynous, protogynous, a solitary female flower terminating each major axis, lateral cymules male; bracts entire or glandular-stipitate.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Male flowers: calyx usually 5-lobed, lobes imbricate; petals 5, free or sometimes laterally coherent, imbricate or contorted; disk usually of 5 free glands; stamens 8 (Flora Zambesiaca area), in 2 fused whorls (5 + 3), outer whorl opposite the petals, anthers dorsifixed, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode absent.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Stipules subulate, bifid or multifid, usually glandular.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Petioles usually eglandular.

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    Habit

    Trees shrubs

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
  • herbs

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
  • Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Dehgan, B. 201. Jatropha. In: Organization for Flora Neotropica. 1968+. Flora Neotropica. 110+ nos. New York. No. 110. Dehgan, B. and B. Schutzman. 1994. Contributions toward a monograph of neotropical Jatropha: Phenetic and phylogenetic analysis. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 81: 349–367. Dehgan, B. and G. L. Webster. 1979. Morphology and infrageneric relationships of the genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 74: 1–73. McVaugh, R. 1945. The genus Jatropha in America: Principal intergeneric groups. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 72: 271–294.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    [Greek iatros, physician, and trophe, food, alluding to use of J. curcas as purgative]

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Euphorbiaceae
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • H
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • J Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).