Heteranthera Ruiz & Pav.
  • Fl. Peruv. Prodr. 9. 1794. (early Oct 1794)
  • Mud plantain [Greek heteros, different, and antheros, anther]


This taxon is accepted by Pontederiaceae
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Information

2. Heteranthera Ruíz López et Pavón

Por A. Novelo R. y A. Lot H.

Anuales o perennes, enraizadas, emergentes. Tallos flotantes o erectos, rizomatosos o estoloníferos. Hojas sumergidas, flotantes o emergentes, basales o alternas; vaina membranácea, larga y persistente; pecíolo nunca inflado, septado; lámina de las hojas sumergidas linear y membranácea, de las emergentes lanceolada, ovada u oblata, la base truncada a cordata, el ápice obtuso a agudo. Inflorescencia generalmente espiciforme o con 1 flor; flores sésiles o pediceladas; pedúnculo delgado, generalmente peloso; entrenudo entre las espatas presente o ausente; lámina de la espata inferior igual en tamaño y forma a la lámina de las hojas estériles; espata superior infundibuliforme. Flores actinomorfas. Perianto blanco o coloreado, piloso-glandular externamente; lóbulos 6, los 3 externos más angostos que los internos, el margen entero. Filamentos 3, el de enmedio más largo o más corto que los otros 2, pelosos o glabros, coloreados; anteras heteromorfas, la central más grande que las 2 laterales. Pistilo sin nectarios septales; estilo de un solo tamaño, a veces coloreado; estigma capitado. Cápsula alargada, 3-locular, multiseminada, dehiscente, generalmente madurando debajo del agua; semillas numerosas, elípticas, obtusas en los extremos, con costillas longitudinales. Aprox. 10 spp. Regiones cálidas y templadas de las Américas y África; algunas especies han sido introducidas en Europa.

Bibliografía: Agostini, G. Acta Bot. Venez. 9: 295-301 (1974a).

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Herbs, annual or perennial, rooting in mud. Vegetative stems submersed and growing to surface, or emersed and procumbent or short. Flowering stems submersed and growing to water surface, or emersed. Sessile leaves submersed, forming basal rosette, or emersed on elongate stem; blade linear or sometimes oblanceolate, apex acuminate to obtuse. Petiolate leaves floating or emersed; blade reniform, cordate, or oblong, membranous, apex acute to obtuse. Inflorescences spicate or solitary, 1–30-flowered, elongating over 1–several days; spathes folded or clasping, with acute to caudate apex, or rarely expanded leaflike extension. Flowers: individuals open 1 day only; perianth with tepals connate 1/2 or more of its length, yellow, blue-mauve, mauve, or white, tubular or salverform, limb lobes linear to oblanceolate or narrowly elliptic, shorter than 2 cm, apex obtuse to acuminate; stamens 3, unequal, 2 lateral ones usually shorter; filaments yellow or purple, inflated in some species, glabrous, glandular-pubescent, or pilose; anthers yellow or purple, rounded, oblong, or sagittate; ovary incompletely 3-locular; ovules 10–many; style 3-lobed. Fruits capsular, elongate. Seeds 10–200, ovoid, testa with longitudinal wings.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    HETERANTHERA Ruiz & Pav.; Leptanthus Michx.; Phrynium Loefl. ex Kuntze; Schollera Schreb.

    Anuales, enraizadas; tallos vegetativos alargados o cortos. Hojas sésiles formando una roseta basal; hojas pecioladas de láminas ovales, oblongas, reniformes o cordadas. Inflorescencia una espiga o las flores solitarias; espata doblada, linear; perianto hipocrateriforme, morado o blanco; estambres 3, 1 largo y 2 cortos, las anteras redondas, oblongas o sagitadas; óvulos numerosos. Fruto capsular; semillas numerosas, con alas longitudinales.

    Un género con 10 especies distribuidas en los trópicos, subtrópicos y regiones templadas del Nuevo Mundo y 1 especie en Africa tropical; 4 especies conocidas de Nicaragua. Vegetativamente las especies son bastante variables.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Plants submerged or floating or of swampy places. Aerial leaves petiolate, expanded; submerged leaves, if present, grass-like. Inflorescence loosely spicate or with a solitary flower. Peduncle exserted from or ensheathed by the spathe. Perianth nearly regular, salverform, white or blue, the outer lobes narrower than the inner. Stamens 3, unequal, one with a much longer filament and larger anther. Ovary many-ovulate. Fruit capsular; seeds very numerous.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Panama
  • Anuales o perennes. Tallo enraizado, emergente del agua o con la porción distal flotante, o rastrero sobre latierra. Hojas sumergidas sésiles, lineares, como una cinta, que forman un rosetón basal o (en 1 sp.) alternas a lolargo del tallo; hojas pecioladas normalmente flotantes o emergentes, la lámina cuneada o truncada a cordadaen la base. Infl. una espiga poco floreada, o reducida a 1 fl. solitaria. Fls. azules a violeta o blancas; periantounido en un tubo corto, 6-lobado, los 3 lóbulos externos más angostos que los internos; estambres 3, sostenidosen el tubo del perianto, uno más grande que los 2 laterales, el filamento con pelos glandulares. Fr. una cápsula;semillas numerosas.

  • Provided by: [B].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
  • "Fls 1–several in a sessile or peduncled infl subtended by a sheathing bladeless spathe, below which is another blade-bearing lf; fls regular or with the perianth-segments unequally disposed; perianth-tube very slender, with 6 spreading, linear to lanceolate segments, the 3 outer narrower than the 3 inner; stamens 3, dimorphic, the 2 posterior (lower) ones short, with usually ovate anthers, the anterior (upper) one larger, with longer filament and oblong to sagittate anther; anthers not coiling after dehiscence; ovary incompletely 3-locular, the 3 parietal placentas intruded, with many ovules; nectaries wanting; fr capsular; plants submersed to partly emersed, or creeping in mud; lvs and stems dimorphic, the erect fertile stems differentiated from the very short to elongate, branched and creeping sterile ones; some lvs bladeless, narrow, sessile and often forming a rosette, others petiolate, with expanded, floating or emersed blade; fls small, white to blue or violet. 11, warm Amer. and Afr."

  • Provided by: [F].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 14
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Ovary unilocular with 3 parietal placentas or imperfectly 3-locular; ovules numerous; style filiform; stigma thickened

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Capsule oblong or linear with thin pericarp

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Perianth almost regular, funnel-shaped or salver-shaped, divided into 6 equal oblong spreading lobes

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Stamens 3 in normal flowers, sometimes solitary in cleistogamous flowers, inserted at the throat of the perianth-tube, exserted and unequal

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Leaves either all linear and submerged, or ovate or reniform and floating, sessile, or petioles long, sheathing the stem at the base; flowering stems bearing an apical leaf, the sheath of which encloses the membranous spathe

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Flowers rather small, solitary or several, arranged in a spike subtended by the spathe; also one or more cleistogamous flowers enclosed in the spathe or sometimes mingled with the normal flowers

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Aquatic herbs; lower stems creeping and rooting in the mud

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Seeds numerous, ovoid, ribbed.

  • Provided by: [A].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCE

    Horn, C. N. 1988. Developmental heterophylly in the genus Heteranthera (Pontederiaceae). Aquatic Bot. 31: 197–209.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Mud plantain [Greek heteros, different, and antheros, anther]

     Information From

    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • A
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • F Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Pontederiaceae
    • H CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).