Euphorbia L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 450. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Spurge [For Euphorbus, first-century A.D. Greek physician]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Euphorbia L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000014224. Accessed on: 01 Apr 2020'

General Information

EUPHORBIA L.; Poinsettia Graham

Por Michael J. Huft

Arboles, arbustos o hierbas, a veces suculentos, con látex; plantas monoicas. Hojas alternas, opuestas o verticiladas, simples, enteras o serradas, a veces lobadas, pinnatinervias; estípulas glanduliformes, diminutas, frecuentemente obsoletas. Ciatio de formas diversas, generalmente cimoso, lobos 5, glándulas 1–5, alternas con los lobos, apéndices petaloides a veces presentes; flores estaminadas pocas a muchas, formadas de un estambre sencillo; flores pistiladas terminales, solitarias, formadas de un ovario sencillo, 3-locular, 1 óvulo por lóculo, estilos 3, libres o unidos en la base, generalmente bífidos. Fruto una cápsula exerta desde el ciatio en la madurez; semillas ovoides, lisas o labradas de formas diversas, con o sin carúncula.

Género cosmopolita con ca 1600 especies, principalmente en los trópicos y subtrópicos; 14 especies se conocen de Nicaragua y 2 especies adicionales se esperan encontrar.

  • Provided by: [J].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
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    Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes succulent, milky latex in all parts; monoecious or rarely dioecious. Leaves opposite, whorled or alternate, often serially on the same plant, simple; sometimes caducous particularly in succulent forms; usually petiolate except in succulents; stipules present or absent, sometimes glandular. Inflorescence a cyathium, the 5 cup-like lobes alternating at their tips with 4-5 glands, these with or without appendages. Staminate flowers in 4-5 cymes, the sub- tending bracteoles partly fused to the involucre or reduced or absent; naked; monandrous; pollen grains subglobose, reticulate to tectate, 3-colporate, sometimes operculate. Pistillate flo'wers terminal, solitary; perianth of 3-6 united sepals or absent; ovary 3-celled each with a single ovule, the styles 3, free or joined basally, usually partly bifid. Fruit. capsular (rarely drupaceous); seed ? ovoid, angled or terete, the surface smooth or variously sculptured, with or without caruncle.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
  • Hierbas anuales o perennes, arbustos o árboles, a veces cactiformes y/o suculentos, monoicos o (raramente) dioicos, glabros o con indumento de tricomas simples, la savia blanca; estípulas ausentes o presentes, usualmente pequeñas, a veces reducidas a glándulas o (spp. cult. en CR) espiniformes. Hojas alternas, opuestas o verticiladas (o en varios arreglos en la misma planta), a veces carnosas, a veces deciduas (spp. suculentas cult. en CR), el pecíolo (nulo en las spp. suculentas) sin glándulas; lámina simple, no lobulada o (rara vez) panduradamente lobulada, de otra forma generalmente entera a dentada o aserrada. Infls. terminales o axilares, bisexuales o masculinas, de unidades ciatiformes solitarias, fasciculadas o dispuestas en cimas, los ciatios radiales o bilaterales, a veces espolonados, 5-lobulados, los lóbulos alternando con 1–5 glándulas, éstas con o sin apéndices petaloides a veces blancos o coloreados. Fls. estaminadas pocas a muchas por ciatio, con o sin bractéolas subyacentes, sin disco; sépalos ausentes (o muy reducidos); pétalos ausentes; estambre 1; pistiloide ausente. Fls. pistiladas terminales y solitarias en el ciatio, sin disco; sépalos usualmente ausentes (rara vez rudimentarios); pétalos ausentes; ovario trilocular; óvulos 1 por lóculo; estilos 3, separados o connatos, a veces brevemente bífidos. Frs. capsulares o (raramente) drupáceos, generalmente elevados de los ciatios; semillas lisas, foveoladas, acostilladas, esculpidas o tuberculadas, con o sin carúncula.

  • Provided by: [H].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
  • Herbs (annual, biennial, or perennial), shrubs, or trees, very rarely subscandent, sometimes rhizomatous, monoecious or, rarely in Flora area, dioecious; indumentum of simple hairs, often absent, all parts with abundant white, very rarely yellow, latex; roots fibrous or tuberous. Stems sometimes succulent, terete or variously winged or tuberculate. Leaves alternate or opposite, rarely verticillate; stipules present or not, sometimes modified into glands or prickles; petiole often ill-defined to absent; leaf blade usually entire, sometimes serrulate or dentate. Inflorescence a flowerlike cyathium, single or often several in terminal or axillary, dichasial or monochasial cymes often in a "pseudumbel" with a terminal ± sessile cyathium subtended by a whorl of pedunculate cymes, each subtended by an involucral leaf; cyathium consisting of a bowl-shaped to tubular involucre subtended by a pair of bracts, "cyathophylls," enclosing several clusters of male flowers and 1 central female flower, occasionally cyathia unisexual, involucre margin with 4 or 5 lobes, cyathial glands (1-)4 or 5(-7), mostly alternating with involucral lobes, sometimes with petaloid appendages or a pair of horns. Male flower reduced to a single stamen, with an articulation at junction of pedicel and filament, subtended by slender bracteoles. Female flower pedicellate, reduced to a single ovary, rarely subtended by a very reduced perianth; ovary 3-loculed; ovules 1 per locule; styles 3, free, sometimes partly connate; stigma 2-lobed or not, ± capitate. Fruit a capsule, breaking into 3 2-valved cocci, dehiscence usually explosive, very rarely almost indehiscent. Seeds 1 per locule, globose to ovoid or ± cylindric; caruncle present or not; endosperm abundant; cotyledons large.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Herbs, subshrubs, or shrubs [trees, cactoid succulents, geophytes, vines], annual, biennial, or perennial, monoecious [dioecious]; hairs unbranched or absent; latex white. Leaves persistent, deciduous, or small and caducous proximally, alternate, opposite, or whorled, sometimes bractlike and subtending floral structures, simple; stipules absent or present, persistent or deciduous; petiole absent or present, glands absent; blade unlobed, margins entire, crenulate, crenate-dentate, or serrulate, laminar glands absent; venation palmate, palmate at base and pinnate distally, or pinnate, often only midvein prominent. Inflorescences bisexual [unisexual], terminal or axillary, pseudanthia (each consisting of cuplike involucre bearing glands on rim, these sometimes with petaloid appendages, enclosing solitary pistillate flower surrounded by (0–)1–80 staminate flowers, entire structure termed the cyathium), in monochasia, dichasia, pleiochasia, cymose clusters, capitate glomerules, or solitary; glands subtending each bract 0. Pedicels present. Staminate flowers: sepals 0; petals 0; nectary absent; stamen 1; pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers: sepals 0 (ovary subtended by a calyxlike structure in E. floridana, E. inundata, E. mesembrianthemifolia, E. porteriana, E. rosescens, and E. telephioides); petals 0; nectary absent; pistil 3-carpellate; styles 3, distinct or connate basally to most of length, unbranched or 2-fid. Fruits capsules, tardily dehiscent and with spongy mesocarp in E. lathyris [drupes]. Seeds globose to ovoid, oblong, cylindric, deltoid, pyramidal, or bottle-shaped; caruncle present or absent. x = 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Roots fibrous, or thick and fleshy, sometimes tuberous

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes succulent and unarmed or spiny, with a milky usually caustic latex, monoecious (elsewhere rarely dioecious)

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Seeds with or without a caruncle.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Fruit a capsule, sometimes fleshy but becoming woody at maturity, loculicidally and septicidally dehiscent (a regma)

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Female flower subsessile or with the pedicel usually elongating and reflexed in fruit but straightening before dehiscence; perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary, seldom 3-lobed; ovary 3-locular, with 1 pendulous ovule in each locule; styles 3, partly united

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Male flowers in 5 groups separated by fringed membranes, bracteolate

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Involucres with (1-)4–5(–8) glands around the rim alternating with 5 fringed lobes

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence with cyathia in simple, dichotomous or umbellate terminal or axillary cymes; bracts paired, often leaf-like, sometimes brightly coloured and showy

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite, alternate orverticillate, often stipulate, subtended by spiny outgrowths on some succulent species

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 17
    • ]. 

    Seeds with or without a caruncle.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Capsule sometimes fleshy but becoming woody at maturity, dehiscent.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Female flower subsessile or with the pedicel elongating and reflexed in fruit but straightening before dehiscence; perianth reduced to a rim below the ovary, rarely 3-lobed; styles partly united.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Leaves opposite, alternate or verticillate, often stipulate, subtended by spiny outgrowths in some succulent species.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence with cyathia in simple, dichotomous or umbellate terminal or axillary cymes; bracts paired, often leaf-like.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Involucres with (1)4–5(8) nectiferous glands around the rim alternating with 5 fringed lobes.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Male flowers bracteolate, in 5 groups separated by fringed membranes.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Roots fibrous, or thick and fleshy, sometimes tuberous.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes succulent and unarmed or spiny, with a milky usually caustic latex, monoecious, rarely dioecious.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 18
    • ]. 

    Habit

    Herbs, shrubs or trees

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Panama
  • Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES Dorsey, B. L. et al. 2013. Phylogenetics, morphological evolution, and classification of Euphorbia subgenus Euphorbia. Taxon 62: 291–315. Horn, J. W. et al. 2012. Phylogenetics and the evolution of major structural characters in the giant genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae). Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 63: 305–326. Prenner, G. and P. J. Rudall. 2007. Comparative ontogeny of the cyathium in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) and its allies: Exploring the organ-flower-inflorescence boundary. Amer. J. Bot. 94: 1612–1629.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Spurge [For Euphorbus, first-century A.D. Greek physician]

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Euphorbiaceae
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • E Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • J Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).