Herbs , annual or perennial, scapose or caulescent, from taproots; sap colorless or clear orange. Stems leafy. Leaves alternate, basal and sometimes cauline, petiolate; blade 1-4× pinnately deeply lobed, lobes of each order usually 3; ultimate lobes narrow. Inflorescences terminal, cymose with bracts present, or 1-flowered. Flowers: receptacle dilated, forming cup beneath calyx, sometimes with free rim; perianth and androecium perigynous; sepals 2, connate, calyptrate, deciduous as unit; petals 4, rarely more (doubled flowers), obovate to obcuneate, with satin sheen from microscopic linear grooves; stamens 12-many; pistil 2-carpellate; ovary 1-locular; style absent; stigmas 4-8, spreading, linear. Fruits capsular, cylindric, 2-valved, dehiscing from base along placentas, often explosively. Seeds many, tan, brown, or black, spheric to ovoid, reticulate, ridged and burlike, or pitted, aril absent. x = 6, 7.
Herbs, perennial to annual, glabrous, slightly hyaline lactiferous. Leaves alternate, generally tripinnatipartite; lobules mostly linear, narrow. Flowers solitary on long pedicels, yellow or orange, occasionally white or cream, large; receptacles cupular-inflated, flowers perigynous. Sepals 2, fused, usually herbaceous in one piece, oblong or conical, in bud margins joined to caplike, at flowering pushed off in one piece due to expanding corolla, apically acute or acuminate. Petals 4, broad, from margin of cupular receptacle, imbricate or contorted in bud. Stamens many, from margin of cupular receptacles; filaments short; anthers linear or oblong, usually longer than filaments, basifixed, 2-celled, introrse. Ovary linear, 1-loculed, 2-carpellate, from bottom of cupular receptacles; styles very short; stigmas 2 or more, almost broadly linear. Capsule narrowly terete, 10-ribbed, 2-valved, dehiscing from base to apex, later usually curved. Seeds many, spherical, tessellate, tuberculate, not carunculate. Cotyledons linear, entire or 2-incised, lobes linear.
Clark, C. and J. A. Jernstedt. 1978. Systematic studies of Eschscholzia (Papaveraceae). II. Seed coat microsculpturing. Syst. Bot. 3: 386-402. Ernst, W. R. 1964b. The genus Eschscholzia in the south Coast Ranges of California. Madroño 17: 281-294. Greene, E. L. 1905b. Revision of Eschscholtzia. Pittonia 5: 205-308. Lewis, H. and R. Snow. 1951. A cytotaxonomic approach to Eschscholzia. Madroño 11: 141-143.
|[For Johann F. G. von Eschscholtz, 1831, Estonian physician and biologist who traveled with Chamisso on the Romanzoff (or Kotzebue) Expedition to the Pacific Coast]|