Echinocactus Link & Otto
  • Verh. Vereins. Beförd. Gartenbaues Königl. Preuss. Staaten 3: 420. 1827.
  • Barrel cactus, eagle-claw cactus, echinocactus [Greek echinos, hedgehog, and Cactus, an old genus name]

Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2023): Echinocactus Link & Otto. Published on the Internet; Accessed on: 30 Mar 2023'

General Information

Plants erect, branched or unbranched, forming compact mounds of 30+ branches, not deep-seated in substrate (or deep-seated in E. texensis and, if plants immature or at high altitude, in E. horizonthalonius). Roots diffuse or short taproots. Stems unsegmented, gray-blue, gray-green, yellow-green, or grass green, flat-topped spheric to short cylindric, 4-40(-45)[-250] × 8-30[-80] cm, apical region appearing copiously woolly (shortly velvety in E. texensis) [glabrous]; ribs (7-)8-27[-60+], very prominent, straight (or only slightly undulate), sometimes helically curving around stems, broadly rounded to nearly keeled, rib crests uninterrupted or ± constricted between areoles; areoles widely spaced or confluent with age, nearly circular to oblong, with fertile portion as short, broad adaxial prolongation confluent with spine cluster; areolar glands absent; cortex and pith hard, not mucilaginous. Spines (5-)7-19 per areole, straw colored, pink, red, gray, tan, or brown, conspicuously annulate-ridged, rigid, stiff; radial spines 5-14 per areole, straight to curved, 2-5 cm; central spines 1-4 per areole, straight to curved, terete, flattened, or abaxially ridged. Flowers diurnal, near stem apex, near adaxial edges of short adaxial extensions of areoles, broadly funnelform to nearly salverform (more narrowly funnelform in E. texensis); outer tepals margins entire, apically spinose; inner tepals yellow or pink to magenta, 2.4-3.2 × 0.3-1.5 cm, margins entire, serrate, toothed, or erose; ovary scaly, spineless, copiously woolly, with white or pale tan hairs from areoles hiding ovary and flower tube at anthesis; scales 8-60, margins entire or fimbriate, spine-tipped; stigma lobes 6-14(-17), yellow, pink, or olive, 1-4.5 mm. Fruits either indehiscent or rupturing irregularly, or tardily dehiscent through basal abscission pore, whitish tan to pinkish (bright red in E. texensis), spheric to ovoid or ovoid-cylindric, 10-50 × 10-40[-100] mm, usually nearly dry (strongly succulent in E. texensis), many scaled; axils of scales copiously woolly (wool hiding surface of fruits except in E. texensis), spineless, distal scales spine-tipped; pulp red; floral remnant persistent. Seeds reddish brown to black, spheric, or subreniform to obovoid, 2.4-4.7 mm, shiny or dull; testa cells convex or flat. x = 11.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora of North America @
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    Barrel cactus, eagle-claw cactus, echinocactus [Greek echinos, hedgehog, and Cactus, an old genus name]

      Taxonomic Status Reference

    • 1 Vargas-Luna, M.D., Hernández-Ledesma, P., Majure, L.C., Puente-Martínez, R., Hernández Macías, H.M. & Bárcenas Luna, R.T. 2018: Splitting Echinocactus: morphological and molecular evidence support the recognition of Homalocephala as a distinct genus in th

     Information From

    Caryophyllales. World Flora Online Data. 2022.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Flora of North America @
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • B Flora of North America Association
    World Flora Online Consortium
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • C CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).