Ecdeiocolea F. Muell.
  • Fragm. 8: 236. 1874.


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2021): Ecdeiocolea F. Muell. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000012891. Accessed on: 03 Dec 2021'

General Information

Although the fruit is generally described as a small nut it is structurally an achene (Rudall et al. 2005).

 

Etymology: Ecdeiocolea is from the Greek ekdeia (= a falling short or laying bare) and coleos (= a sheath), referring to the paucity of sheaths on the stems.

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    Diagnostic Description

    Culms unbranched, terete, striate; leaves reduced to a single scarious sheath; inflorescence of a single terminal compact cylindrical or ovoid spike, with zones of female and male flowers alternating once or twice along spike axis; glumes rigid, glumes and flowers spirally arranged in 5 ranks, on very short pedicels.

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    Morphology

    Herbs, monoecious, perennial, caespitose or with extended stout rhizomes, with glabrous scales covering the rhizomes. Cataphylls scarious. Culms unbranched, glabrous, pruinose toward the base, the culm a single internode, with a persistent scarious sheath where the culm joins the peduncle of the single spike; the peduncle more slender than the culm and continuous with the culm. The sheath open and overlapping at the base. Spike solitary, terminal, cylindrical to ovoid, compact, with 20–45 flowers, with zones of female and male flowers alternating once or twice along the spike axis, the basal zone mostly female; flowers spirally arranged in 5 ranks, on very short pedicels. Glumes ovate-cuneate, rigid. Tepals 6, outer lateral tepals keeled. Male flowers with 4 stamens. Female flowers with an initially 2-locular ovary and 2 styles but only one carpel developing; styles mostly stigmatic on the adaxial side, feathery with long white stigmatic hairs. Fruit a small nut (structurally an achene), shed with attached tepals and short stout pedicel. Seeds with an irregular pattern of longitudinal lines of convex cells. Culm striated with grooves extending to the base of the chlorenchyma; stomates on sides of or near base of grooves; ridges without a central sclerenchyma rib.

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    Biology

    Germination hypogeal in Ecdeiocolea monostachya (Pate & Meney 1999: 21–22).

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    Ecology

    Wind-pollinated. Resprouting after fire.

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    Habitat

    Well-drained sites in a region of low rainfall; mostly on deep sands.

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    • 1
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    Distribution

    A genus of 2 species in semi-arid habitats in the Western Australia.

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    • 1
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    Genetics

    2n = c. 48 in Ecdeiocolea monostachya (Linder et al. 1998).

     

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    Literature

    Bentham, G. (1878). Ecdeiocolea [in Restionaceae], Flora Australiensis 7: 211 (Reeve & Co.: London).

    Briggs, B.G. (2011). Ecdeiocolea rigens, a new species of Ecdeiocoleaceae (Poales) from Western Australia. Telopea 13(1): 69–75.

    Briggs, B.G. & Tinker, A. (2014). Synchronised monoecy in Ecdeiocoleaceae (Poales) in Western Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 62(5): 391–402.

    Briggs, B.G. & Johnson, L.A.S. (1998). Georgeantha hexandra, a new genus and species of Ecdeiocoleaceae (Poales) from Western Australia. Telopea 7(4): 307–312.

    Linder, H.P., Briggs, B.G. & Johnson, L.A.S. (1998). Ecdeiocoleaceae, in Kubitzki, K. (ed.), The Families and Genera of Flowering Plants IV: 195–197. (Springer-Verlag: Berlin).

    Mueller, F.J.H. von (1874) Ecdeiocolea (in Restionaceae). Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae 8: 236.

    Meney, K.A. & Pate, J.S. (eds) (1999). Australian Rushes. Biology, Identification and Conservation of Restionaceae and Allied Families. (University of Western Australia Press: Nedlands).

    Meney, K.A., Pate, J.S. & Hickman, E.J. (1999). Morphological and anatomical descriptions of Restionaceae and allied families and their distribution, in Meney, K.A. & Pate, J.S. (eds), Australian Rushes. Biology, Identification and Conservation of Restionaceae and Allied Families, pp. 161–461. (University of Western Australia Press: Nedlands).

    Pate, J.S. & Meney, K.A. (1999). Morphological features of Restionaceae and allied families, in Meney, K.A. & Pate, J.S. (eds), Australian Rushes. Biology, Identification and Conservation of Restionaceae and Allied Families, pp. 3–23. (University of Western Australia Press: Nedlands).

    Rudall, P.J. (1990). Development of the ovule and megagametophyte in Ecdeiocolea monostachya. Australian Systematic Botany 3(2): 265–274.

    Rudall, P.J., Stuppy, W., Cunniff, J., Kellogg, E.A. & Briggs, B.G. (2005). Evolution of reproductive structures in grasses (Poaceae) inferred by sister-group comparison with their putative closest living relatives, Ecdeiocoleaceae. American Journal of Botany 92(9): 1432–1443.

    Western Australian Herbarium (1998–). FloraBase—the Western Australian Flora. (Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions).   https://florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au/

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     Information From

    Ecdeiocoleaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Flora of Australia
    https://profiles.ala.org.au/opus/foa
    Australian Biological Resources Study
    • B Australian Biological Resource Study
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • C CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).