Diospyros L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 1057. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Ebony, persimmon [Greek Dios, Zeus, and pyros, grain, Theophrastean fruit name of unknown application appropriated by Linnaeus]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Diospyros L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000011857. Accessed on: 06 Jun 2020'

General Information

Arbustos o árboles dioicos, el tronco leve a fuertemente acanalado, a veces con la corteza externa negra y la interna amarilla, con aroma + desagradable; estípulas ausentes. Hojas simples, alternas, enteras, pecioladas. Infls. axilares, cimosas o de 1 fl. solitaria. Fls. unisexuales, actinomorfas; miembros del perianto diferenciados en 2 verticilos; sépalos connatos en un cáliz 3–7-lobulado, los lóbulos valvados, imbricados o contortos, a veces persistentes y acrescentes en fr.; pétalos connatos en una corola 3–7-lobulada, rotada a tubular, en forma de trompeta, urceolada o globosa, los lóbulos dextrorsamente contortos (raramente imbricados o valvados); estambres (fls. estaminadas) 9–15(–20), los filamentos separados o connatos, más cortos que las anteras; anteras basifijas, con dehiscencia longitudinal o (raramente) poricida; estaminodios a menudo presentes en las fls. pistiladas; pistilo (fls. pistiladas) 1, compuesto, las fls. estaminadas a menudo con pistilodio; ovario súpero, (4?)5–12-locular (en CR); óvulos 1(2) por lóculo; placentación axilar; estilos 2–8, separados o connatos; estigma entero o emarginado. Frs. abayados, carnosos o coriáceos, rara y tardíamente dehiscentes; semillas 1–pocas, con copioso endosperma cartilaginoso, a menudo ruminado.

  • Provided by: [F].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
  • 1. Diospyros L.

    Maba J.R. Forst. et G. Forst.

    Por C. Whitefoord y S. Knapp.

    Arbustos o árboles, algunas veces árboles del dosel, con madera densa, dura. Flores unisexuales, algunas veces en la base de las ramitas, ocasionalmente cerca de las puntas, generalmente esparcidas a lo largo del crecimiento actual, rara vez sobre madera vieja, pediceladas, bracteoladas; cáliz generalmente acrescente en el fruto; corola urceolada, campanulada o hipocraterimorfa, frecuentemente constreñida en el cuello. Fruto frecuentemente comestible. Semillas péndulas, oblongas, comprimidas. Aprox. 475 spp. Pantropical con la mayoría de las especies (aprox. 200) en Asia; aprox. 80 spp. en la región Neotropical.

    Además de las especies en la clave, esporádicamente se cultiva Diospyros kaki Thunb. en Mesoamérica [H (Pfeiffer 1802, US)] por su fruto comestible, el pérsimo. Se distingue fácilmente de cualquier otra especie del área por las siguientes características: hojas ovadas, largamente pecioladas, en su mayoría 3-nervias desde la base, cáliz en el fruto 4-partido, y fruto solitario, grande, anaranjado, generalmente sin semillas, con pulpa carnosa. Diospyros blancoi y únicas otras especies comúnmente cultivadas y ambas tienen hojas coriáceas y nervadura indistinta. También es posible que la especie de madera dura D. ebenum Koenig (de la cual proviene el ébano) se cultive en Mesoamérica, sin embargo no hemos visto ningún ejemplar.

    Bibliografía: Gürke, M. en Engler, A. y Prantl, K. Nat. Pflanzenfam. IV. 1: 153-165 (1891). Hiern, W.P. Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 12: 27-300 (1873). Howard, R.A. J. Arnold Arbor. 42: 430-435 (1961).

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Trees or shrubs, deciduous or evergreen. Terminal buds absent. Branchlet tips sometimes forming a spine. Leaves alternate, occasionally minutely translucent dotted or with gland pits.Flowers dioecious or polygamous. Male flowers in axillary cymes, usually on basal part of current year's branchlets, deciduous soon after anthesis; stamens 4 to numerous, often pairedand forming 2 whorls; ovary rudimentary. Female flowers usually solitary, axillary; staminodes 1--16 or absent; stigma often 2-cleft. Calyx usually 3--5(--7)-lobed, sometimes truncate.Corolla urn-shaped, campanulate, or tubular, 3--5(--7)-lobed, deciduous. Berries fleshy to somewhat leathery, usually with an enlarged persistent calyx. Seeds 1--10(or more), oftenlaterally compressed.

    • Provided by: [H].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
      • Source: [
      • 9
      • ]. 

      Shrubs or trees, usually dioecious; terminal buds absent; wood dense, hard. Leaves deciduous or persistent; petiole often glandular; blade lanceolate to broadly ovate, elliptic, or obovate, coriaceous, surfaces glabrous or pubescent, especially abaxially. Inflorescences 2-15-flowered cymes (staminate) or solitary flowers (pistillate, rarely staminate). Pedicels accrescent in fruit [or not], slender, much shorter to several times longer than flowers. Flowers: sepals persistent, often accrescent in fruit; corolla urceolate to campanulate or salverform, petals usually convolute and imbricate; staminate flowers usually smaller than pistillate flowers; stamens [6-]16(-32), paired and in [1-]2[-5] series; anthers introrse, 2-locular; ovary [3-]8[-16]-locular; ovules 1-2 per locule; styles connate proximally or to near stigmas, slender. Berries yellow, orange, red, purple, brown, or black, fleshy or fibrous. x = 15.

    • Provided by: [I].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      • Source: [
      • 10
      • ]. 

      DIOSPYROS L.; Maba J.R. Forst. & G. Forst.

      Arboles dioicos con madera dura y densa. Hojas alternas, nervadura pinnada. Corola angosta a ampliamente urceolada, pubescente por fuera, blanca, los lobos contortos en la yema; estambres y estaminodios con filamentos cortos, anteras oblongas, lineares, con conectivos formando apículos, dehiscencia longitudinal; ovario 6–12-locular. Baya coriácea, dulce, comestible; semillas grandes, más de 1 cm de largo.

      Un género con ca 400 especies, distribuido principalmente en los trópicos y subtrópicos y con algunas especies en las zonas templadas; 3 especies se conocen en Nicaragua.

    • Provided by: [K].Flora de Nicaragua
      • Source: [
      • 11
      • ]. 

      "Dioecious or nearly so, the pistillate fls commonly with nonfunctional stamens; fls usually 4-merous; cal deeply lobed; cor urceolate to rotate, with spreading or recurved lobes, those of the staminate and the fertile fls usually different in size; stamens 4–many, usually 16, hypogynous or inserted at the base of the cor; ovary usually 4- locular, or 8-locellar. 400, mainly warm reg."

    • Provided by: [J].New York Botanical Garden
      • Source: [
      • 14
      • ]. 

      Morphology

      Leaves nearly always alternate, entire or obscurely crenulate

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Trees, shrubs or in a few cases suffrutices

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Male flowers: stamens 2-100 or more, included or exserted, solitary or united in pairs or groups, free from or adnate to the corolla-tube; anthers dehiscent by means of longitudinal slits (in the Flora area); rudimentary ovary absent or well developed; disk well developed or not, often fimbriate

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Corolla 3-8-lobed, very variable

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Calyx very variable, 3-8-lobed or entire and cupuliform, usually accrescent in fruit

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Flowers usually in cymes or fascicles or solitary, unisexual the ♀ usually larger than the ♂

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Female flowers: ovary globular, ovoid or conical, of 3-8 carpels, glabrous or hairy; carpels completely or incompletely partitioned; styles usually partly free, more rarely completely fused; stigma usually dilated and fleshy; staminodes variable, absent to well developed

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Seeds mostly ellipsoid or segment-shaped (like a 1/4 of an orange), rarely subglobose, with 2 radial lines leaving the summit; embryo straight or incurved in its own plane; radicle not encircled completely by an invagination of the testa.

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Fruits usually 1-several-seeded berries

    • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      • Source: [
      • 7
      • ]. 

      Leaves nearly always alternate, margin entire.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Trees, shrubs or suffrutices.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Flowers dioecious, the female usually larger than the male.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Inflorescence usually cymose or fasciculate or reduced to a solitary flower.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Corolla 3–8–lobed, very variable.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Calyx very variable, 3–8–Iobed or cup–shaped and entire, usually accrescent.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Stamens 2–100 or more, included or exserted, solitary or united in pairs or larger groups, adnate to corolla–tube or not; anthers (in our area) dehiscing by longitudinal slits.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Pistillode variable, absent to very well–developed.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Disk well–developed or not, sometimes fimbriate.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Fruit usually a 1· to many–seeded berry, rarely tardily dehiscent.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Styles usually at least partly free, rarely completely united; stigmata usually fleshy and expanded.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Ovary globose, ovoid or conoidal, glabrous or hairy, 3–8 carpellary; carpels (except in section Ferrea) completely or incompletely septate.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Staminodes variable, absent to well–developed.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Seed usually ellipsoid or shaped like a segment of an orange, very rarely subglobose, with 2 lines radiating from the apex; embryo straight or curved in its own plane, radicle not completely surrounded by an invagination of the testa.

    • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      • Source: [
      • 8
      • ]. 

      Included Species

      Other Local Names

      NameLanguageCountry
      Ebony, persimmon [Greek Dios, Zeus, and pyros, grain, Theophrastean fruit name of unknown application appropriated by Linnaeus]

        Bibliography

       Information From

      Ebenaceae
      World Flora Online Data. 2017.
      • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
      MBG Floras Images
      http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
      Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
      • B Missouri Botanical Garden
      • C Missouri Botanical Garden
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • D
      Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
      https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
      http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
      • E
      Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
      http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
      Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
      • F Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora Mesoamericana
      http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
      Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
      • G Missouri Botanical Garden
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      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
      'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • H Missouri Botanical Garden
      Flora of North America @ efloras.org
      http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
      'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
      • I Flora of North America Association
      New York Botanical Garden
      Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
      • J Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
      Flora de Nicaragua
      http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
      WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
      • K Missouri Botanical Garden
      World Flora Online consortium
      http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
      World Flora Online Data. 2018.
      • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).