Sepals 8–12, spirally arranged and subequal; outer 3–5 coherent below, thin to chartaceous and generally reddish or pinkish; inner 5–7 ones almost free, membranous and whitish, each with a small thick hairy scale adhering to the base on the inner side
Flowers bisexual or polygamous-monoecious, i.e. the lower ones in the same raceme often ♂ only
Ovary with 2–4 multi-ovulate placentas; style short, divided distally into (2), 3 or 4 stigmatic branches
Stamens 16–30; filaments filiform; anthers linear-oblong, subsagittate, basifixed
Racemes axillary, solitary; pedicels subtended by several minute bracts
Leaves persistent, alternate, entire, dentate or serrate, glabrous, penninerved; stipules caducous
Seeds 1–5, obtusely ovoid-angular; testa hard; endosperm copious; cotyledons flat.
Fruit capsular, finally splitting into 3 valves; pericarp coriaceous
Sepals 4–5, almost free, the outer scarcely smaller, usually orbicular.
Flowers bisexual or male by abortion, in lax racemes or crowded and more or less spicate.
Stamens indefinite, free; anthers linear to narrowly lanceolate, dehiscing longitudinally.
Petals 4–7, imbricate, like the inner sepals but larger, with thick hairy scales adnate at the base within.
Fruit a globose capsule with a hard leathery pericarp, style persistent, splitting into 2–4 longitudinal sections.
Ovary free, glabrous or hairy, 1-locular with 2–4 multiovulate placentas; style short or long, simple or divided in the upper half into 2–4 branches, stigmas 2–4, short.
Leaves petiolate with caducous stipules; lamina entire, serrulate or dentate.