Trees or shrubs evergreen, dioecious (very rarely monoecious); trunk straight; main branches spreading or drooping; branchlets drooping or ascending, dense. Leaves dimorphic: juvenile leaves 2-ranked and forming an oblong-ovate branchlet outline, linear, not scalelike; adult leaves needlelike or scalelike, falcate, bilaterally or bifacially flattened, or not flattened, 0.8-1.5 mm. Pollen cones lateral (rarely terminal), solitary or few together; microsporophylls numerous, imbricate; microsporangia 2, abaxial. Seed-bearing structures terminal and often borne on short, lateral branchlets, pedunculate, with appressed or spreading, bractlike leaves at base of peduncle; apical 1 or 2 bracts fertile; basal bracts fused to form a succulent, warty receptacle; ovule inverted. Epimatium wholly enveloping seed, united with fertile bract(s) and together bearing a short, free apex forming an asymmetrically projecting crest on immature seed-bearing structure. Seed large.