Connarus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 675. 1753. (1 May 1753)


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Connarus L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000009140. Accessed on: 02 Dec 2020'

General Information

Lianas, climbing shrubs, or small trees. Branchlets glabrous. Leaves alternate, exstipulate, petiolate, odd-pinnate or 3-foliolate, rarely 1-foliolate; leaflets subopposite or alternate; leaflet blade entire at margin, usually with pellucid glands. Inflorescences mostly terminal, paniculate, large, or rarely subcymose or racemose in distal leaf axils. Flowers bisexual, fragrant. Sepals, petals, and stamens usually glandular. Sepals (4 or)5, broadly imbricate or subvalvate in bud, slightly connate at base, thick and fleshy, persistent but not enlarged after anthesis. Petals 5, free, subequaling or slightly longer than sepals, often coherent at middle, imbricate in bud. Stamens ca. 10, alternately longer and shorter, 5 long ones opposite sepals, 5 short ones opposite petals and often abortive; filaments connate at base; anthers oblong, locules often glandular at base; connective glandular at apex. Carpel 1; ovary globose, 1-loculed, pilose; ovules 2, collateral. Style slender, proximal 1/2 pilose, distal 1/2 glandular pubescent; stigma uniform, oblique. Follicle slightly compressed, sometimes narrowed at base into a long, slender stipe (stipe sometimes thick or almost absent), striate, dehiscing longitudinally along adaxial or sometimes abaxial suture, with persistent calyx, apex obtuse and usually shortly beaked; pericarp woody or leathery. Seed 1, somewhat reniform; testa mostly black-purple, glossy; aril cupular, crenulate or laciniate, fleshy; endosperm absent.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
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    CONNARUS L.

    Arbustos semiescandentes o bejucos. Inflorescencias paniculadas o espiciformes; sépalos imbricados, a veces con puntuaciones; pétalos con puntos glandulares; estambres más o menos unidos en la base, carpelo 1. Fruto solitario, elipsoide o suborbicular, apiculado o rostrado lateralmente; endosperma ausente.

    Género pantropical que incluye unas 80–100 especies, en América tropical se conocen 54 especies distribuidas desde México hasta Bolivia y Brasil y en las Antillas; en Nicaragua se han registrado 3 especies. Ramírez Goyena (1911: 258) citó C. monocarpus L. erróneamente, pues esta especie no existe en América tropical.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
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    Tallos glabros o glabrados a variadamente pubescentes. Hojas con 3–5 folíolos (en CR), éstos glabros o glabrados a inconspicua o esparcidamente puberulentos o tomentulosos en el envés. Infls. terminales o subterminales, paniculadas o paniculado-espiciformes, glabras o glabradas a variadamente pubescentes, de numerosas fls. Fls. sésiles o pediceladas; sépalos imbricados, no acrescentes en fr.; pétalos glabros o puberulentos, con o (muy raramente) sin puntos glandulares; pistilo 1. Frs. estipitados o (muy raramente) sésiles, glabros o glabrados a puberulentos o tomentulosos.

  • Provided by: [G].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Woody lianas, shrubs, or trees. Leaves imparipinnate, rarely unifoliolate. In- florescence paniculate, terminal and lateral in the upper leaf axils. Flowers small, glandular; sepals imbricate to subvalvate, more or less conspicuously punctate- glandular, not enlarged in fruit; petals glandular or eglandular; stamens 10, or the inner whorl reduced to staminodia, the filament and connective bearing small, sessile or stipitate glands; carpels 1. Fruit a stipitate, gibbous follicle containing a single arillate seed.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Inflorescence terminal, paniculate, or rarely axillary and cymose or racemose

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Leaves imparipinnate, trifoliolate or rarely unifoliolate, entire, opposite or sub-opposite

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Sepals 5, rarely 4, imbricate or rarely subvalvate

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Flowers with heteromorphic androecium and gynoecium

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Testa dark and shining, hilum lateral; aril bilobed, spreading posteriorly to enclose seed-base; cotyledons thick, radicle usually apical; endosperm absent or little-developed.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Shrubs, trees or lianes, branches glabrous or with simple or sympodially branched hairs

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Fruit an obliquely pyriform, fusiform or cymbiform follicle, apex obliquely mucronate or tapering into a curved rostrum, base narrowing into a slender stipe; dehiscence usually along ventral suture; pericarp woody, horny or tough and parchment-like, obliquely and conspicuously lined with raised striae, usually glabrous, sometimes with blackish glandular lacunae

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Petals 5, usually longer than sepals, glabrous to densely pubescent, sometimes with glandular hairs; both sepals and petals dotted with blackish glandular cavities

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Stamens 10; epipetalous stamens sometimes staminodal or reduced with functionless anthers; filaments connate into short basal tube, anthers ± oblong, both filaments and anthers with scattered glandular papillae

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
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    Carpel solitary; ovary ovoid, pubescent, style often with glandular papillae, stigma expanded; ovules inserted on ventral suture

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Arbustes'lianiformes, quelquefois dressés ou lianes.'Feuilles'imparipennées ou 3-foliolées, très rarement 1-foliolées; folioles opposées ou subalternes,entières.'Inflorescences'généralement en panicules terminales, amples, rarement axillaires en cymes ou en racèmes; indument formé de poils simples.'Fleurs'☿, 5-cycliques; sépales 5, rarement 4, libres, largement et étroitement imbriqués, quelquefois subvalvaires, ± visiblement ponctués de lacunes noires; pétales plus longs ou rarement égaux aux sépales, glabres, pubérulents, tomenteux ou glandulifères, ponctués de lacunes noires; étamines 10, toutes fertiles ou 5 fertiles et 5 staminodiales, les épisépales plus longues que les épipétales; filets poilus et glandulifères, soudés à la base en un petit tube; anthères à thèques souvent glandulifères; carpelle 1, ovoïde, tomenteux extérieurement, glabre ou poilu intérieurement; style velu à la base, souvent glandulifère vers le sommet, stigmate obliquement réniforme, à bords ondulés; ovules ± anatropes, attachés à la suture ventrale.'Follicules'solitaires, à déhiscence ventrale, parfois s'ouvrant également du côté de la nervure dorsale, obliquement piriformes, ± cylindriques, fusiformes, ellipsoïdes ou naviculiformes, souvent obliquement mucronés au sommet ou terminés par un bec courbé, atténués en un stipe long et mince ou court et ± épais ; péricarpe ligneux ou coriace, obliquement ou régulièrement strié; endocarpe sclérifié, glabre ou glandulifère ou pileux ou tomenteux.'Graines solitaires par follicule; testa rouge foncé brillant; arille cupulaire ou latéral et bilobé, enveloppant à peine la base de la graine, crénelé aux bords ou ± lacinié; endosperme peu développé; hile ventral; radicule apicale.\n\t\t\t\tEnviron 120 espèces répandues dans toutes les régions tropicales; 15 espèces en Afrique tropicale dont 8 et une variété au Congo belge.

  • Provided by: [F].Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    • Source: [
    • 11
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    Habit

    trees

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    • ]. 

    lianas shrubs

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    About 121 species of the tropics of both hemispheres, according to Schellen- berg. In Panama the species are woody lianas, occasionally erect or suberect, in- habiting meist forests and thickets at low elevations.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    • ]. 

    Included Species

     Information From

    Connaraceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flore d'Afrique Centrale
    https://www.floredafriquecentrale.be
    • F http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).