Cocos L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 1188. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Coconut palm palm, cocotier [derivation of name uncertain]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2019): Cocos L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000008759. Accessed on: 06 Dec 2019'

General Information

Stems large, solitary, gray, often leaning. Leaves 25-30, pinnate; leaf sheaths open, fibrous; pinnae linear, 1-veined, numerous, regularly arranged along rachis, spreading in same plane. Inflorescences branched to 1 order, borne among leaves, covered by a prophyll and woody, persistent peduncular bract; flowers unisexual, borne in triads at bases of rachillae, male only toward apices. Fruit large, 1-seeded; germination adjacent; eophylls undivided.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Stems solitary, erect or ascending, often leaning, robust, unarmed, trunks with conspicuous nodal rings. Leaves: sheath coarse, cloth-like, not forming crownshaft; petiole unarmed; petiole base entire; blade pinnate, unarmed; plication reduplicate; segments regularly arranged, apices acute. Inflorescences axillary within crown of leaves, paniculate, with 1 or 2 orders of branching, stiffly ascending; prophyll short; peduncular bract woody, beaked, splitting abaxially, becoming boat-shaped; rachillae glabrous. Flowers unisexual, sessile, in triads of 1 pistillate flower flanked by 2 staminate flowers, staminate flowers borne singly along distal portions of rachillae. Staminate flowers: sepals 3, imbricate, free; petals 3, valvate; stamens 6, free; anthers sagittate; pistillode with 3 slender lobes. Pistillate flowers borne basally on rachillae, massive; sepals 3, imbricate, free, more or less ± reniform; petals 3, imbricate, free, large, imbricate; staminode a thin ring at base of pistil; pistils 1, large; ovules 3, but usually only 1 ovule fertile; styles indistinct; stigmas 3. Fruits drupes, greater than 10 cm diam., strongly to obscurely 3-angled, dry; exocarp brown, thin, smooth; mesocarp very fibrous, dry; endocarp thick, bony, with 3 basal germination pores. Seeds very large, hollow and fluid-filled; endosperm lining cavity of seed, homogeneous, oily; embryo basal; eophyll 2-cleft, segments lanceolate. xn = 16.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    COCOS L.

    Por Carmen Ulloa Ulloa

    Cocos nucifera L., Sp. Pl. 1188. 1753.

    Palmas solitarias, a menudo reclinadas, hasta 20 m de alto y 20–30 cm de diámetro o más; tallos conspicuamente anillados y conspicuamente hinchados en la base, inermes; plantas monoicas. Hojas numerosas, 5–7 m de largo, pinnadas, reunidas en una corona grácil; pinnas 75–100 a cada lado, linear-acuminadas, ca 1 m de largo, con numerosas escamas a lo largo del nervio principal en el envés, arregladas regularmente y rígidamente patentes en el mismo plano; vaina abierta y fibrosa, pecíolo corto a largo. Inflorescencias interfoliares, ramificadas hasta 1 orden, protandras, bráctea peduncular muy grande, tubular, encerrando a la inflorescencia cuando en yema, luego volviéndose cimbiforme, leñosa, raquis tan largo como el pedúnculo y con raquillas dispuestas en espiral; raquillas robustas, inicialmente péndulas, luego patentes, con una porción basal desnuda y pocas tríades y pares de flores estaminadas distalmente, sépalos libres, pétalos libres, coriáceos; flores estaminadas más o menos asimétricas, 9–13 mm de largo, estambres 6, pistilodio con 3 lobos; flores pistiladas 15–21 mm de largo, con 6 estaminodios en un anillo. Frutos grandes, elipsoidales a ampliamente ovoides, 20–30 cm de largo y 12–20 cm de diámetro, verdes a café-rojizos a anaranjados o amarillos cuando maduros, residuo estigmático apical, perianto acrescente, epicarpo liso, mesocarpo grueso y fibroso, endocarpo grueso, leñoso y con 3 poros basales; semillas 1, muy grande, endosperma homogéneo y una cavidad central parcialmente llena de fluido, embrión basal, eofilo simple.

    Nativa o naturalizada en la zona atlántica, cultivada en el resto del país; 0–1000 m; fl y fr oct; Stevens 10544; de origen desconocido pero probablemente del Pacífico occidental, en la actualidad ampliamente cultivada en los trópicos y subtrópicos, especialmente en las playas a orillas del mar. Género monotípico. Una de las plantas tropicales cultivadas más importantes con una infinidad de usos de todas sus partes tanto a nivel doméstico como comercial. El endosperma es comestible. "Coco".

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Trees with single usually leaning or oblique trunk becoming nude and ringed, feather-leaved, spineless, monoecious: spadices interfoliar, shorter than the leaves, included at first within striate woody but not sulcate or furrowed large cymbas, the inner and longer one of which may persist as a dead object even after the fruit is grown; nodifronds reduced to scale-like bracts 2-4 cm. long that may have more or less- perished by fruiting time: flowers staminate and pistillate, one of the latter normally standing between two of the others near the base of the strand or rachilla but the upper part of the strand staminate and many strands wholly -staminate: fruit a great heavy indehiscent fibrous husk containing 1 hard-shelled nut that bears 3 prominent pores or micropyles at the end opposite the attach- ment to the tree, part of the contents remaining liquid; embryo basal; 3 inner envelopes of the staminate flowers much exceeding the 3 outer ones or calyx and lightly imbricate; envelopes of pistillate flowers very broad, striate, strongly imbricate.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Germination adjacent-ligular; seedling leaf simple.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Inflorescence interfoliar, bisexual, branching to 1 order; prophyll inconspicuous, remaining between the leaf-sheaths; peduncular bract 1, conspicuous, tubular at first, then splitting longitudinally, woody, longitudinally striate, beaked; peduncle moderately long; rachillae spreading, bearing 1–few triads at the base and solitary or paired ♂ flowers distally

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Leaf pinnate; leaflets regular, reduplicate, entire, single-fold

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Leaf-base with continuous reticulate sheath, with a triangular extension opposite the petiole

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Tall, solitary, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious tree palm; trunk with leaf-sheaths abscissing cleanly leaving leaf-scars

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Female flowers much larger than the ♂, subglobose, with 3 large imbricate sepals and 3 large imbricate petals; staminodal ring inconspicuous; ovary large, ± spherical, tipped by trifid sessile stigma

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Male flowers with 3 imbricate sepals, 3 valvate petals and 6 stamens; pistillode small

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Fruit massive, with thick fibrous mesocarp, very hard endocarp with 3 basal pores, and usually only 1 seed; endosperm hard, homogeneous, with central cavity partly filled with liquid; embryo basal

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Species of the western hemisphere formerly referred to it are segregated into other genera, none of which is known to be native in Panama.

  • Provided by: [B].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Austin, D. F. 1978b. The coconut in Florida. Principes 22: 83--87. Harries, H. C. 1978. The evolution, dissemination, and classification of Cocos nucifera L. Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 44: 265--320. Harries, H. C. 1992. Biogeography of the coconut Cocos nucifera L. Principes 36: 155--162.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Coconut palm palm, cocotier [derivation of name uncertain]

     Information From

    Arecaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • G CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).