Chrysophyllum L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 192. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Cainito [Greek chrysos, gold, and phyllon, leaf]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Chrysophyllum L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000008232. Accessed on: 29 Sep 2020'

General Information

Shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate; stipules absent. Flowers small, 2 to many fascicled and axillary, pedicellate or sessile. Sepals 5(or 6), usually glabrous or inside tomentose. Corolla tube campanulate, usually extended, (4- or)5--11-lobed. Stamens (4 or)5--10 in 1 whorl, inserted in throat and opposite corolla lobes; staminodes absent. Ovary 1--10-locular, villous or glabrous. Style longer to shorter than ovary. Fruit 1--8-seeded, exocarp thick to very thin. Seed coat papery to crusty; scar narrow to wide, lateral, sometimes almost covering entire seed.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    7. Chrysophyllum L.

    Por T.D. Pennington, A.K. Monro, S.P. Thornton-Wood y S. Knapp.

    Achrouteria Eyma, Cainito Plum. ex Adans., Chloroluma Baill., Cornuella Pierre, Cynodendron Baehni, Dactimala Raf., Ecclinusa Mart. sensu Baehni, Gambeya Pierre, Guersentia Raf., Martiusella Pierre, Nycterisitition Ruiz et Pav., Prieurella Pierre, Ragala Pierre, Villocuspis (A.DC) Aubrév. et Pellegr.

    Árboles o arbustos, monoicos o dioicos, generalmente con un látex blanco. Estípulas ausentes. Hojas alternas y dísticas o en arreglos espirales; venación broquidódroma o eucamptódroma; nervaduras terciarias frecuentemente paralelas a las nervaduras secundarias y descendiendo desde los márgenes, u oblicuas y apretadamente paralelas, o reticuladas. Inflorescencias axilares, ramifloras o caulifloras. Flores fasciculadas, rara vez solitarias; cáliz un verticilo único de (4-)5(-6) sépalos imbricados o quincunciales, algunas veces acrescentes en el fruto, frecuentemente ciliados; corola urceolada, campanulada o cilíndrica, el tubo más corto que los lobos o más largo que ellos, los lobos (4-)6(-8), simples; estambres (4)5(-8), adnatos, las anteras extrorsas cuando en el botón, pelosas o glabras; estaminodios generalmente ausentes, rara vez presentes como pequeñas estructuras lanceoladas o subuladas en los senos de los lobos de la corola, alternados con los estambres, los filamentos bien desarrollados; disco ausente; ovario (4-)5(-12)-locular, la placentación axial; estilo incluido. Fruto en baya, con 1-muchas semillas, con un látex blanco. Semillas comprimidas lateralmente; testa lisa y brillante, o rugosa y adherida al pericarpo; cicatriz adaxial angosta, basiventral o adaxial, algunas veces extendiéndose alrededor de la base de la semilla, o la semilla no comprimida lateralmente y la cicatriz más ancha. Aprox. 71 spp. en los trópicos; 43 spp. en los Neotrópicos.

    Bibliografía: Pennington, T.D. Fl. Neotrop. 52: 536-621 (1990).

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Mesoamericana
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    CHRYSOPHYLLUM L.

    Espinas ausentes; plantas hermafroditas, monoicas o dioicas. Hojas alternas, dísticas o en espiral, nervadura eucamptódroma o broquidódroma, a veces finamente estriada; estípulas ausentes. Inflorescencia en fascículos (o flores solitarias), axilar, o en las axilas de hojas caídas, ramifloras o caulifloras; sépalos (4) 5 (6) en un verticilo quincuncial o imbricado; corola verde, amarillo-verdosa, crema o blanquecina, con tubo más corto, igual o más largo que los lobos, lobos (4) 5 (–8), patentes (o erectos), no segmentados; estambres (4–) 5 (–8), filamentos bien desarrollados o no, adnados al tubo de la corola o a la base de los lobos, incluidos, estaminodios comúnmente ausentes (raramente presentes como pequeñas estructuras vestigiales en los senos de los lobos de la corola); ovario (4) 5 (–12)-locular, óvulos axilares, estilo incluido. Fruto una baya con 1–muchas semillas, semillas lateralmente comprimidas con cicatriz adaxial angosta (que a veces se extiende alrededor de la base) o no lateralmente comprimidas y con cicatriz más ancha, basiventral o adaxial, endosperma tan grueso como los cotiledones a copioso.

    Género con ca 43 especies en América tropical, con ca 28 especies en Africa, Madagascar, Asia–Malasia y Australia; 6 especies se han colectado en Nicaragua. Otra especie la cual podría encontrarse en Nicaragua es C. hirsutum Cronquist, conocida desde el norte de Costa Rica hasta Panamá entre 400 y 1500 m; difiere del resto de nuestras especies por tener hojas y tallos con tricomas ásperos los cuales no están aplicados a la superficie. En otros aspectos ésta es similar a C. brenesii y se diferencia principalmente por las flores más grandes, sépalos 3–4 mm de largo, corola 4.5–6.5 mm de largo, con tubo de más de 3 veces la longitud de los lobos.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Shrubs to medium-sized trees. Leaves alternate; blades with the secondary laterals and areoles more or less paralleling the primary laterals. Flouwers several to nu- merous in each axillary cluster, occasionally solitary; sepals (4)5(6), uniseriate, often quincuncial when 5, united at the base; corolla not exceeding 6 mm in length, the lobes (4)5(6), lacking appendages; staminodes absent; staminal fila- ments attached to the top of the corolla-tube or base of the corolla-lobes; ovary appressed-pubescent, 4 to 12-celled, the ovules affixed laterally or basilaterally, the style short (less than 1.75 mm in Panama taxa), columnar, the stigma discoid, marginal lobes often evident. Fruit fleshy; seeds 1-several, the scar large, broadly elliptic to subcordate, at least 5 mm long, lateral or basilateral, the endosperm copious.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
  • Trees. Stems unarmed, densely hairy to glabrate. Leaves persistent, alternate; stipules absent; petiole present; blade: base cuneate to rounded, apex acute to acuminate [rounded or emarginate], surfaces densely hairy [glabrous] abaxially, usually glabrous adaxially. Inflorescences fascicles or solitary flowers. Flowers: sepals 4-5[-6] in 1 whorl, imbricate, abaxially densely hairy; petals (4-)5(-6)[-8], greenish white or greenish yellow, sericeous adaxially, lobes undivided, equaling or shorter than [exceeding] corolla tube; stamens 4-5[-8], distinct; staminodes absent [present]; pistil 3-5(-6)[-12]-carpellate; ovary 3-6[-12]-locular, densely hairy; placentation axile. Berries purple to black [yellow, orange, red, brown, green], ellipsoid to ovoid, glabrous [hairy]. Seeds 1[-5], brown, laterally compressed; hilum narrowly ovate to obovate; embryo vertical; endosperm present. x = [12, 13, 14,] 26.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    Morphology

    Corolla cylindric, urceolate or campanulate; lobes entire, equalling or shorter than tube.

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    Stipules absent.

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    Leaves coriaceous or chartaceous, not or sometimes clustered at branch ends; lamina sometimes with lateral nerves very numerous, close, straight and parallel.

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    Sepals ± free to the base.

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    • Source: [
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    Flowers usually hermaphrodite (flowers with reduced anthers occur sporadically in some species), 5–merous, borne in few– to many–flowered fascicles in axils of current leaves or on older wood.

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    • 9
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    Trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Stamens not exserted; filaments inserted at level of base of lobes or in tube; anthers extrorse.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Ovary conical, densely pilose, tapering into a short thick style, usually 5–locular; ovules solitary, with lateral or basi–lateral attachment.

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    • Source: [
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    Alternipetalous Staminodes usually absent.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
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    Seeds (1) 2–S, with long narrow lateral scar; testa hard, smooth and shiny; endosperm copious; cotyledons thin and leafy.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Fruit a subglobose to pear–shaped berry, often with lobes corresponding with number of seeds; pericarp fleshy or subcoriaceous.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Sepals 5, ± free to base

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Corolla ± equal in length to sepals or longer; lobes usually 5, ± equal in length to or shorter than the cylindrical or campanulate tube

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Stamens same number as corolla-lobes and opposite, inserted at throat

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    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Staminodes normally absent, but may be irregularly present

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    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Ovary subglobose to broadly conical, densely pilose, normally 5-locular; ovules solitary with lateral or basi-lateral attachment; style short and stout, ± equal length of ovary or rarely longer

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Stipules absent

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Leaves petiolate; lamina coriaceous or chartaceous; primary nerves usually prominent, straight or curved, closely parallel or widely spaced and then usually with longitudinal or transverse vein reticulum; lower surface often with sericeous indumentum

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    • 10
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    Flowers clustered in current or fallen leaf axils, subsessile or pedicellate, hermaphrodite, normally 5-merous

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Fruit a subglobose to ovoid or ellipsoid berry; pericarp fleshy or subcoriaceous

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Seeds several or sometimes solitary; testa hard and shiny; scar lateral and narrow or sometimes (and not in Africa) broad and extending over the seed surface; endosperm present; embryo with flattened foliaceous cotyledons; radicle basal.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    • 10
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    Habit

    Shrubs to trees

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
  • Distribution

    Approximately 40 species occur in the New World and a number of Old World species are known; two species are found in Panama.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
  • Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Cainito [Greek chrysos, gold, and phyllon, leaf]

     Information From

    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • A Missouri Botanical Garden
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Flora of North America Association
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Sapotaceae
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).