Chenopodium L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 218. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Goosefoot [Greek chen, goose, and pous, foot, in reference to the shape of the leaf]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Chenopodium L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000007814. Accessed on: 27 Feb 2020'

General Information

Herbs annual or perennial, rarely subshrubs, covered with vesicular or terete hairs (in several species sometimes also with uniseriate, multicellular hairs), farinose (“mealy”) when dry, rarely glabrous. Leaves alternate, petiolate; leaf blade complanate, margin entire or irregularly serrate or lobed. Inflorescence usually of several flowers forming a glomerule (rarely solitary flowers), these arranged in axillary or terminal spikes, panicles, or dichasia; bracts and bractlets absent. Flowers bisexual or some female. Perianth green, globose, 5-parted, in some species (2 or)3- or 4-parted; segments abaxially slightly fleshy at center or longitudinally keeled, adaxially concave, remaining unchanged in fruit, rarely enlarged or becoming juicy, without appendages. Disk usually absent. Stamens 5 or fewer; filaments sometimes basally united, filiform or capillary; anthers oblong, without an appendage. Ovary globose, slightly depressed, rarely ovoid; ovule subsessile; style obscure or very short; stigmas 2(-5). Fruit a utricle; pericarp membranous or slightly fleshy, adnate to seed or free, indehiscent. Seed horizontal, in some species oblique and/or vertical, ovoid, lenticular, or depressed globose; testa lustrous, leathery, smooth or pitted; embryo annular, semi-annular, or horseshoe-shaped; perisperm copious, farinaceous.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    CHENOPODIUM L.

    Hierbas, anuales o perennes; plantas hermafroditas o raramente monoicas. Hojas alternas, generalmente pecioladas, frecuentemente glandulosas o farinosas, a veces glabras. Inflorescencia de flores agrupadas en glomérulos terminales o axilares, flores sésiles o subsésiles; sépalos (3–) 5, iguales o subiguales; estambres con filamentos aplanados, anteras dorsifijas; ovario súpero, estigmas 2–5, filiformes o subulados, generalmente sésiles o subsésiles. Fruto un utrículo con pericarpo libre o adherido a la semilla; semilla lenticular, horizontal o vertical, embrión parcial o completamente anular.

    Consta de 150–200 especies, en todos los continentes, mayormente en las regiones templadas; 2 especies en Nicaragua. En Centroamérica se conocen otras 3 especies, naturalizadas de los Estados Unidos y México. Varias especies se utilizan como alimento, como condimento o por sus propiedades medicinales.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Flowers perfect or rarely unisexual, sessile or subsessile, ebracteate. Sepals (3-) 5, hypogynous, free or basally united, herbaceous, subequal, often strongly 1-ribbed and cucullate. Stamens 5 or fewer, occasionally varying in number in different flowers of the same inflorescence, the flattened filaments free or basally connate, the anthers mostly suborbicular, introrse, dorso-medially attached. Ovary sub- globose, the stigmata 2 (-5), filiform or subulate, mostly sessile or subsessile. Fruit an indehiscent utricle, ovoid to subglobose, the pericarp membranaceous to carnose, free or adherent to the single seed; seeds mostly cochleate-lenticular, smooth to roughened, vertically or horizontally oriented. Annual or perennial often strong- scented herbs. Leaves alternate, entire to pinnatifid, the lowermost at least usually petiolate, frequently glandular or farinose. Inflorescences of terminal or axillary glomerules, the glomerules variously arranged.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Herbs, annual or perennial [rarely suffruticose, or small trees], farinaceously pubescent with small white inflated hairs or glabrous. Stems erect to prostrate, branched (rarely simple), not jointed, not armed, not fleshy. Leaves alternate, petiolate or sessile, not fleshy; blade linear, oblong, lanceolate, ovate, triangular, trullate, or rhombic, flattened, not jointed, not spinose, base truncate, cordate, hastate, or cuneate, margins entire, dentate, sinuate, or serrate, apex acute to acuminate or obtuse, occasionally lobed. Inflorescences spicate and terminal or axillary glomerules; bracts usually absent or leaflike but narrower than leaves. Flowers bisexual (rarely unisexual, then terminal flower male or bisexual and lateral flowers female), bracteoles absent; perianth segments (3-)5, usually connate at base, sometimes almost to middle or beyond, not imbricate, rounded or keeled abaxially, wings and spines absent; stamens 5 or fewer; ovary superior; style 1 or absent; stigmas 2(-5), filiform. Fruits utricles or achenes, often enclosed in infolded perianth, indehiscent or irregularly dehiscent; pericarp membranaceous or chartaceous, adherent or nonadherent. Seeds horizontal or vertical [rarely oblique], lenticular to subglobose; seed coat black, brown-black, or reddish brown; embryo annular or hippocrepiform (horseshoe-shaped), surrounding copious farinaceous perisperm; radicle inferior or centrifugal. x = 9.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    "Fls perfect (seldom some of them pistillate); cal persistent, mostly 2–5-parted (most commonly 5-, less often 3-), the short, usually blunt segments commonly incurved over the fr (cal only shallowly lobed in one sp.); stamens 1–5, typically isomerous with the cal-lobes; styles 2(–5); fr laterally compressed (the seed erect) or more often flattened across the top (the seed horizontal), thin-walled, the pericarp often adherent to the ± lenticular seed; embryo annular; ours herbs (most spp. annual) with entire or toothed to ± deeply lobed lvs and small, greenish to reddish fls, these in most spp. sessile in glomerules (the glomerules either axillary or in terminal spike-like or panicle-like infls), but in other spp. in compact cymes that may collectively form a thyrse, or otherwise disposed. (Blitum, Roubieva) 100+, cosmop."

  • Provided by: [G].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Leaves membranous to more or less fleshy, entire, toothed, or pinnately divided, alternate, mostly petiolate, normally broad.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Mostly annual or perennial herbs, glabrous, pubescent, glandular or mealy with vesicular hairs.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Flowers mostly in cymose clusters (“glomerules”) variously arranged but often paniculate and mixed, without bracteoles.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Stamens 1–5.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Perianth of both sorts of flower normally (3) 4–5 lobed, unaltered or nearly so in fruit, or sometimes becoming fleshy.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Fruit with a membranous indehiscent pericarp.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Stigmas 2 (5).

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Seeds “horizontal” (vertically compressed) or, less commonly, “vertical” (horizontally compressed), testa normally thin, hard and brittle.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Embryo annular.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Endosperm present.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 4
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, mostly petiolate, normally broad

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Mostly annual or perennial herbs, glabrous, pubescent, glandular or mealy with vesicular hairs

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Weeds of cultivated areas and waste lands around human habitations.

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Stamens 1–5

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Calyx of both sorts of flower normally (3–) 4–5-lobed, unaltered or nearly so in fruit, or sometimes becoming fleshy

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Flowers mostly in cymose clusters (“glomerules”) variously arranged, ⚥ and ♀ mixed, without bracteoles

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Endosperm present

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Embryo annular

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Seeds “horizontal” (vertically compressed) or, less commonly, “vertical” (horizontally compressed); testa normally thin, hard and brittle

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Fruits with membranous indehiscent pericarp

  • Provided by: [E].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Distribution

    Consisting of about a hundred weedy species, Chenopodiumn is a rather cosmo- politan assemblage of meager economic importance.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Aellen, P. 1929. Beitrag zur Systematik der Chenopodium-Arten Amerikas. Verwiegend auf Grund der Sammlung des United States National Museum in Washington, D.C. Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 26: 31-64, 119-160. Aellen P. and T. Just. 1943. Key and synopsis of the American species of the genus Chenopodium L. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 30: 47-76. Bassett, I. J. and C. W. Crompton. 1982. The genus Chenopodium in Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 586-610. Mosyakin, S. L. 1993. An outline of a system for Chenopodium L. (species of Europe, North and Central Asia). Ukrayins’k. Bot. Zhurn. 50: 71-77. Mosyakin, S. L. and S. E. Clemants. 1996. New infrageneric taxa and combinations in Chenopodium L. (Chenopodiaceae). Novon 6: 398-403. Wahl, H. A. 1954. A preliminary study of the genus Chenopodium in North America. Bartonia 27: 1-46.

  • Provided by: [C].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Goosefoot [Greek chen, goose, and pous, foot, in reference to the shape of the leaf]

     Information From

    Amaranthaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • C Flora of North America Association
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • E
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • G Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • H Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • J CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).