Carpinus L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 998. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Hornbeam [Latin carpinus, hornbeam, possibly from carpentum, a Roman horse-drawn vehicle with wheels made from its hard wood]


This taxon is accepted by Betulaceae
Notes: More details could be found in The Plant List v.1.1. Originally in The Plant List v.1.0

General Description

Trees, sometimes shrubs, deciduous; bark fissured or smooth. Stipules deciduous. Leaves alternate, irregularly and doubly or simply serrate. Male inflorescence pendulous, spicate-cymose, cylindric, enclosed by buds during winter, with many overlapping bracts; flowers without bracteoles or perianth; stamens 3-12, inserted at base of bracts; filaments forked at apex; anthers 2-loculed, thecae separate, pubescent at apex. Female inflorescence terminal or axillary on dwarf shoots, racemose; flowers paired; bracts leaflike, complanate, overlapping, 2- or 3-lobed at base. Nutlet ribbed, enclosed by lobes of bracts or not.

Trees , 8--25 m; trunks usually 1, branching mostly deliquescent, trunk and branches irregularly longitudinally ridged, fluted. Bark of trunk and branches bluish to brownish gray, thin, smooth, close [thicker, broken or shredded]; lenticels generally inconspicuous. Wood nearly white to light brown, very hard and heavy, texture fine. Branches, branchlets, and twigs conspicuously 2-ranked; young twigs differentiated into long and short shoots. Winter buds sessile, ovoid, 4-angled in cross section, apex acute; scales many, imbricate, smooth. Leaves on long and short shoots, 2-ranked. Leaf blade narrowly ovate to ovate, elliptic, or obovate with 10 or more pairs of lateral veins, 3--12 × 3--6 cm, thin, margins doubly serrate to serrulate; surfaces abaxially glabrous to tomentose, sometimes covered with small glands. Inflorescences: staminate catkins solitary or in small racemose clusters, lateral, formed previous growing season and enclosed [exposed] in buds during winter, expanding with leaves; pistillate catkins distal to staminate on short, leafy new growth, solitary, ± erect, elongate; bracts and flowers uncrowded. Staminate flowers in catkins 3 per scale, crowded together on pilose receptacle; stamens 3(--6), short; filaments often distinct part way to base; anthers divided into 2 parts, each 1-locular, apex pilose, Pistillate flowers 2 per bract. Infructescences loose racemose clusters of paired bracts, clusters pendulous, elongate; paired bracts deciduous with fruit, expanded, (1--)3-lobed, variously toothed, foliaceous, each bract subtending 1 fruit. Fruits small nutlets, deltoid, longitudinally ribbed, often crowned with persistent sepals and styles. x = 8.

CARPINUS L.

Carpinus tropicalis (Donn. Sm.) Lundell, Lloydia 2: 79. 1939; C. americana var. tropicalis Donn. Sm.; C. caroliniana var. tropicalis (Donn. Sm.) Standl.

Arboles hasta ca 20 m de alto y ca 1 m de diámetro, con ramas patentes en 2 series, corteza lisa, leve e irregularmente estriada, gris-café. Hojas en 2 hileras, mayormente lanceoladas a ovado-alargadas, la más grande de cada brote con lámina de 5–13 cm de largo y 1.5–4.5 cm de ancho, en general largamente acuminadas, redondeadas a cordadas o a veces cuneadas en la base, a menudo moderada a densamente pubescentes en el envés, especialmente en los nervios y en las axilas de los nervios, 12–17 pares de nervios secundarios. Inflorescencias estaminadas (amentos) 3–9 cm de largo y 4–6 mm de diámetro, flores sin perianto, filamentos 0.7–1.5 mm de largo y divididos apicalmente 20–60% de su longitud, anteras pilosas en el ápice; inflorescencias pistiladas 1–2.5 cm de largo y 4–7 mm de diámetro, flores inconspicuas, ovario solitario coronado por 2 estilos lineares. Infructescencias maduras 3–7.5 cm de largo, formadas de brácteas grandes 3-lobadas, cada una abrazando una nuececilla solitaria, frutos 3.5–6 mm de largo, los restos del cáliz frecuentemente persistentes en la parte superior.

Rara, en nebliselvas, encontrada sólo en el Volcán Yalí, Jinotega; ca 1500 m; Atwood 133, Stevens 15106; desde el sur de México hasta la frontera hondureño-nicaragüense. Esta subespecie intergrada con C. tropicalis ssp. mexicana Furlow en el centro y noreste de México. La especie ha sido confundida con C. caroliniana Walter del este de los Estados Unidos y Canadá, pero estudios estadísticos uni y multivariables han demostrado que difiere en una amplia variedad de características que incluyen hábito, forma e indumento de la hoja, caracteres de la inflorescencia y de la flor. Un género con ca 20 especies del hemisferio norte.

J. Furlow. The Carpinus caroliniana complex in North America. I. A multivariate analysis of geographical variation. Syst. Bot. 12: 21–40. 1987, II. Systematics. 12: 416–434. 1987.

"Staminate catkins pendulous, the scales ovate, each bearing a single naked fl composed of several stamens; filaments short, each divided at the summit and bearing2 apically pilose half-anthers; pistillate catkins slender, somewhat shorter, with ovate, deciduous scales; pistillate fls in pairs, each subtended by a minute bract adnate at base to 2 minute bractlets, the cal also minute; bracts and bractlets accrescent in fr; fr a small, ribbed nutlet; trees or shrubs, fl in early spring. 30, N. Temp."

Literature

SELECTED REFERENCES

Furlow, J. J. 1987. The Carpinus caroliniana complex in North America. I. A multivariate analysis of geographical variation. Syst. Bot. 12: 21--40. Furlow, J. J. 1987b. The Carpinus caroliniana complex in North America. II. Systematics. Syst. Bot. 12: 416--434. Winkler, H. 1914. Neue Revision der Gattung Carpinus. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 15(suppl.): 488--508. Winstead, J. E., B. J. Smith, and G. I. Wardell. 1977. Fruit weight clines in populations of ash, ironwood, cherry, dogwood and maple. Castanea 42: 56--60.

Common Names

NameLanguage
Hornbeam [Latin carpinus, hornbeam, possibly from carpentum, a Roman horse-drawn vehicle with wheels made from its hard wood]

 Information From

Betulaceae
World Flora Online Data. 2017.
  • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  • B Missouri Botanical Garden
Flora of North America @ efloras.org
http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
  • C Flora of North America Association
Flora de Nicaragua
http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
  • D Missouri Botanical Garden
New York Botanical Garden
Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
  • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Flora Online consortium
http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
World Flora Online Data. 2018.
  • F CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).