Cannabis L.
  • Sp. Pl. 2: 1027. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Hemp, Indian hemp, marijuana, marihuana, chanvre, cannabis [Greek kannabis, hemp, said to come from Arabic kinnab or Persian kannab ]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Cannabis L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000006546. Accessed on: 26 Jan 2020'

General Information

2. Cannabis L.

Por C.Ulloa Ulloa.

Hierbas sufruticosas, completamente cubiertas de tricomasglandulares, generalmente dioicas aunque rara vez en los cultivares seencuentran flores de ambos sexos en la misma planta. Hojas opuestas o alternas,palmaticompuestas, los márgenes gruesamente serrados; estípulas libres ofusionadas en la base. Inflorescencias en panículas axilares en las hojas másaltas; inflorescencias estaminadas laxamente ramificadas, las inflorescenciaspistiladas compactas, espiciformes; sépalos 5, membranáceos; estambres 5,opuestos a los sépalos; estigma corto ramificado en 2 estigmas, persistentescuando en fruto. Frutos en aquenios rodeados por el perianto; semillasolitaria; embrión recurvado. 1 sp. Género nativo de Asia.

  • Provided by: [F].Flora Mesoamericana
    • Source: [
    • 1
    • ]. 

    Herbs, annual, erect, dioecious or sometimes monoecious. Stems furrowed. Leaves alternate or opposite basally on stem, palmately compound, basally with 5-11 leaflets, apically with 1-3 leaflets; leaflet margin serrate. Male inflorescences axillary or terminal, a lax panicle. Male flowers: sepals imbricate; filaments straight in bud; rudimentary pistil small. Female inflorescences axillary, in a rosette. Female flowers: bracteoles leaflike; calyx rudimentary, membranous, appressed to ovary; styles 2, linear, caducous. Achene solitary, surrounded by persistent calyx, enclosed by bracts; endosperm fleshy; embryo curved; cotyledon fleshy.

  • Provided by: [J].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • ]. 

    Herbs , annual, erect, taprooted. Stems simple to well branched, without 2-branched hairs. Leaves palmately compound; petiole not twining, without 2-branched hairs. Leaf blade: surfaces abaxially sparsely to densely pubescent. Inflorescences: staminate inflorescences compound cymes or panicles, erect; pistillate pseudospikes, congested, erect to spreading. Flowers: staminate and pistillate on different plants, sometimes on same plants, especially in cultivars. Achenes lenticular, enclosed within enlarged perianth; embryo curved. x = 10.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    CANNABIS L.

    Cannabis sativa L., Sp. Pl. 1027. 1753.

    Arbustos hasta 5 m de alto, tallos con crestas prominentes, usualmente huecos al madurar, toda la planta normalmente cubierta de tricomas glandulares; plantas estaminadas en general laxamente ramificadas, plantas pistiladas compactas. Hojas decusadas en la base, alternas hacia arriba, palmaticompuestas con 3–15 folíolos lanceolados, 5–40 cm de largo y 1–4 cm de ancho, márgenes serrados, puntos glandulares aparentes abaxialmente; estípulas triangulares. Inflorescencia en plantas estaminadas de panículas cimosas, laxamente ramificadas, erectas; en plantas pistiladas de una serie de espigas falsas. Fruto ovoide, 3–6 mm de largo.

    Si bien no se ha visto material de herbario, la especie es cultivada en el país. Ampliamente introducida y cultivada en todo el mundo debido a sus fibras y a sus principios narcóticos. Género monotípico nativo de Asia. "Marihuana".

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Nicaragua
    • Source: [
    • 12
    • ]. 

    "Ordinarily dioecious; pistillate fls in small clusters on short, leafy branches from the upper axils, each fl semi-enclosed by a closely subtending, abruptly acuminate bract; cal short and barely lobed, or sometimes longer but hyaline and becoming adnate to the pericarp; fr a thick-lenticular achene, with a closely subtending accrescent bract; erect annual herbs; lvs petiolate, the principal ones palmately compound with 5–9 lfls, commonly opposite, the upper smaller, usually alternate, with fewer lfls or undivided. Monospecific."

  • Provided by: [K].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 13
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Leaves alternate or opposite, palmately divided

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Stem erect

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Achene covered by the persistent calyx

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Embryo curved.

  • Provided by: [G].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    • Source: [
    • 2
    • ]. 

    Female flowers fewer, in short erect spikes, leafy below, each flower sessile in the axil of an enveloping bracteole and also with a stipule-like bract; perianth inconspicuous, very thin, closely enveloping the ovoid ovary

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Male flowers numerous, shortly pedicellate, in lax drooping terminal and axillary panicles; tepals free, oblong, spreading or reflexed; anthers at length pendulous

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Embryo strongly curved; cotyledons fleshy.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Fruit ovoid, compressed with seed closely conforming to the thin crustaceous pericarp

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Leaves alternate, or opposite at the base of the stems, palmately divided into narrow leaflets; stipules linear, acute

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Erect annual aromatic herb

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Easily identified by the light and dark patterning of the perianth layer (where this is present) surrounding the fruit.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Male inflorescences laxly cymose-paniculate, bristly-hairy, exceeding the leaves but bearing a few scattered leaves; flowers numerous, shortly pedicellate; perianth lobes free, boat-shaped, spreading or reflexed; stamens pendulous at maturity, filaments short; pistillode 0.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Female inflorescences short, compact, not exceeding the leaves; flowers fewer, paired, each subtended by a stipule-like bract and a small green “bracteole” or “calyx” which completely envelopes the ovary and loosely encloses the mature fruit, this enveloping bracteole forming a basally swollen tubular sheath narrowly attenuate at the apex and covered with fine hairs and shortly-stalked or sessile, resinous glands; perianth membranous, undivided, tightly enveloping the ovary and mature fruit (often reduced or absent in cultivated forms), marbled with light and dark areas; stigma-branches densely pubescent, caducous.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Fruit a globular to ovoid achene tightly covered by the thin crustaceous perianth, the reticulate venation of the surface visible beneath the perianth.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Embryo strongly curved, cotyledons fleshy.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Erect annual aromatic herbs, dioecious with male and female plants dimorphic, or rarely monoecious; indumentum of most parts consisting of minute appressed sollen-based hairs; leaves alternate or opposite at the stem base, palmately loheb or digitately compound, leaflets uneven in size, with serrate margins; stipules lateral, persistent.

  • Provided by: [H].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Schultes, R. E., W. M. Klein, T. Plowman, and T. E. Lockwood. 1974. Cannabis: An example of taxonomic neglect. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 23: 337-367. Simpson, B. B. and M. Conner-Ogorzaly. 1986. Economic Botany: Plants in Our World. New York. Small, E. 1979. The Species Problem in Cannabis: Science & Semantics. 2 vols. Toronto. Small, E. and A. Cronquist. 1976. A practical and natural taxonomy for Cannabis. Taxon 25: 405-435.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Hemp, Indian hemp, marijuana, marihuana, chanvre, cannabis [Greek kannabis, hemp, said to come from Arabic kinnab or Persian kannab ]

     Information From

    Cannabaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora Mesoamericana
    http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/fm/
    Gerrit Davidse, Mario Sousa Sánchez, A. O. Chater, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Instituto de Biología, Missouri Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum (London, England) UNAM, 1994
    • F Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FWTA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • G The Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • H
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • I Flora of North America Association
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • J Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • K Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • L CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).