Calophyllum L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 513. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Alexandrian laurel [Greek kalos, beautiful, and phyllon, leaf] I


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2019): Calophyllum L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000006171. Accessed on: 07 Dec 2019'

General Information

Trees [shrubs], hairy at least on buds, with stilt or loop roots. Stems ± flattened and angled when young. Leaves: petiole concave, without adaxial protuberance; blade coriaceous, venation close, apparently unbranched, parallel, uniting to form marginal or submarginal vein and alternating with and usually more prominent than latex canals, without tertiary venation visible between lateral veins. Inflorescences racemiform; peduncle and rachis usually present; bracts usually deciduous, small. Flowers bisexual; sepals deciduous, 4, distinct, in decussate pairs, outer 1–2 pairs rarely much different from rest; stamens obscurely 4-fascicled; style slender, ca. 4 times as long as ovary. Fruits drupaceous; pericarp firm or fleshy, smooth when fresh. Seeds 1. x = 16.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
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    CALOPHYLLUM L.

    Por Barry E. Hammel

    Arboles o arbustos, corteza frecuentemente con fisuras característicamente naviculiformes, látex amarillo a crema; plantas dioicas o hermafroditas. Hojas coriáceas y frágiles, tomento de las yemas café y a veces persistente, nervios laterales numerosos y estrechamente paralelos, más finos que los nervios marginales. Inflorescencias racimos axilares y a veces terminales, flores pocas, globosas cuando en yema; tépalos 4–16, mayormente decusados, verde pálidos a blancos; estambres numerosos, filamentos delgados, anteras ovoides a oblongas; ovario 1-locular (en especies dioicas, las plantas estaminadas con un ovario reducido), 1-ovulado, óvulo erecto, estilo delgado, coronado por un estigma peltado. Fruto una drupa, exocarpo carnoso, mesocarpo coriáceo a fibroso; semilla 1, con una capa ósea.

    Género con ca 187 especies, distribuido principalmente en Indomalasia, ca 8 especies en América tropical desde México hasta Argentina y en las Antillas; 1 especie nativa y otra cultivada se encuentran en Nicaragua.

  • Provided by: [I].Flora de Nicaragua
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    Trees, rarely shrubs, sometimes polygamous; latex yellow; twigs terete to compressed or angular, glabrescent; vegetative buds fine tomentose. Leaves op- posite, the costa prominent, the lateral veins straight, parallel, numerous, alter- nating with resin ducts which may be sclerified and appear on the dried leaf surface as veins; petioles mostly short. Inflorescences mostly short axillary or terminal racemes, rarely forming reduced panicles; deciduous bracts sometimes present; pedicels usually slender. Flowers polygamous, sepals (2-)4, the inner pair often petaloid; petals 2-4 to many or wanting, opposite or imbricate; stamens mostly numerous, in staminate flowers congested in the middle, in pistillate flow- ers 2 to many seriate below the ovary, the filaments slender, sometimes basally connate; the anthers oblong or ovoid, basifixed, longitudinally dehiscent; ovary 1-locular, the style slender, inflexed in bud, the stigma peltate, the ovule 1, erect, anatropus. Fruit an indehiscent drupe, mostly subglobose, the endocarp hard or thin, the locule sometimes not filling the fruit; seed erect, ovoid or globose, the cotyledons 2, thick and fleshy.

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
  • Trees or shrubs, with clear [or milky or yellow] latex. Apical buds rarely abortive; buds lacking (or with) scales. Leaves opposite, petiolate [or rarely sessile], leathery, usually glabrous; secondary veins many, almost perpendicular to midvein, ± prominent above; tertiary venation absent; translucent glandular canals present between veins. Inflorescence cymose or thyrsiform, terminal or axillary. Flowers bisexual [or rarely unisexual]. Sepals and petals together 4-12 (usually 4 + 4 in Chinese species), 2- or 3-whorled, not always differentiated, outer (sepals) decussate, inner (petals) imbricate. Stamens many, not obviously fascicled; filaments scarcely united or all free, slender; anthers erect, basifixed; fasciclodes absent. Ovary 1-loculed, glabrous [tomentose], with a single erect ovule; style elongate, slender; stigma often peltate. Drupelike berry with thin exocarp ("skin"), thin fleshy mesocarp and thin endocarp sometimes adherent to seed. Seed 1, large, with thin [or thick] testa ("stone"); embryo with broad fleshy cotyledons.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
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    Árboles, terrestres, dioicos o hermafroditas, sin raíces zancudas, la corteza con placas o fisuras en forma de diamante, las ramitas sin glándulas estipuliformes; yemas puberulentas; resina blanca a crema. Hojas con pecíolo + cilíndrico, sin fosa adaxial; lámina + coriácea, finamente revoluta en el margen, glabrada en ambas caras, los nervios secundarios numerosos y cercanamente paralelos (<1 mm distantes), con un nervio marginal evidente, los nervios terciarios no evidentes, las líneas de resina no visibles. Infls. axilares y (a veces) terminales,  racemosas o poco ramificadas y así paniculadas, puberulentas. Botones florales globosos, puberulentos. Fls. sin bractéolas; perianto con los verticilos no diferenciados; tépalos 4–12, + decusados, verde pálido a blancos, membranáceos; estambres (fls. bisexuales o estaminadas) numerosos, separados, los filamentos más largos que las anteras; anteras ovoides a oblongoides, con dehiscencia lateral; estaminodios numerosos (fls. pistiladas) parecidos a los estambres fértiles; ovario (fls. bisexuales o pistiladas) unilocular; óvulo 1; estilo 1, delgado; estigma 1, peltado; pistilodio ausente en las fls. estaminadas. Frs. drupáceos, verdes, globosos, el mesocarpo coriáceo a fibroso, el exocarpo carnoso; semilla 1, café claro, 10–25 mm, globosa, sin arilo.

  • Provided by: [J].Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
  • Morphology

    Petals 4–8 (sometimes absent), white, imbricate, not always distinguishable from the inner sepals.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Sepals 4, decussate, free, the inner pair sometimes ± petaloid.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Flowers terminal or axillary, in few- to many-flowered racemes or paniculate cymes or rarely reduced to 1–3, bisexual.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Leaves opposite, almost always petiolate, entire, often coriaceous, with lateral nerves numerous, slender, close together and parallel (usually nearly at right angles to the midrib), alternating with ± translucent glandular canals.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Seeds large.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Fruit a 1-seeded drupe with crustaceous pericarp.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Ovary 1-locular, with a single erect ovule; style simple, slender, often flexuous; stigma peltate.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Androecium of 4 antipetalous stamen-fascicles each of numerous stamens, or sometimes with stamens apparently free; filaments slender and sometimes flexuous; anthers ovate to linear-oblong; fasciclodes absent.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
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    Trees or rarely shrubs secreting a milky or yellow or clear latex.

  • Provided by: [D].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 8
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    Fruit a drupe, with brittle or thick pericarp and 1 large seed.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Leaves opposite, petiolate or rarely ± sessile, entire, usually coriaceous, with very numerous and closely placed fine parallel lateral nerves alternating with ± translucent glandular canals

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    • 9
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    Flowers terminal or axillary, in few–many-flowered racemes or panicle-like cymes or rarely reduced to 1–3, hermaphrodite

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
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    Trees or rarely shrubs, secreting a milky yellow or clear latex; bark of young trees with characteristic diamond- or boat-shaped fissures

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Stamens numerous, usually arranged in 4 bundles opposite the petals or sometimes ± free; filaments slender and ± flexuous; anthers ovate to linear-oblong

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Ovary 1-locular, with solitary erect ovule; style simple, slender, often flexuous; stigma peltate

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Sepals 4, free, the inner pair sometimes ± petaloid

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Petals 2 or 4–8 or sometimes absent, white, imbricate, not always distinguishable from the inner sepals

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 9
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    Habit

    Trees, rarely shrubs

  • Provided by: [E].Flora de Panama
  • Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCE Stevens, P. F. 1980. A revision of the Old World species of Calophyllum (Guttiferae). J. Arnold Arbor. 61: 117–699.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 10
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    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Alexandrian laurel [Greek kalos, beautiful, and phyllon, leaf] I

      Bibliography

     Information From

    Calophyllaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    • C Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • D
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • E Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Flora of North America Association
    Flora de Nicaragua
    http://www.tropicos.org/projectwebportal.aspx?projectid=7&pagename=Home&langid=66
    WD Stevens, CU Ulloa, A Pool and OM Montiel. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2001
    • I Missouri Botanical Garden
    Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Costa%20Rica
    Hammel, B. E.; Grayum, M. H.; Herrera, C.; Zamora, N. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 2003-2014
    • J Missouri Botanical Garden
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • K CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).