Shrubs or subshrubs , evergreen or deciduous, 0.1-4.5(-8) m, glabrous or with tomentose stems. Rhizomes present or absent, short or long, not nodose. Stems branched or unbranched, monomorphic or dimorphic, i.e., all elongate or with elongate primary stems and short axillary spur shoots. Leaves alternate, sometimes leaves of elongate shoots reduced to spines and foliage leaves borne only on short shoots; foliage leaves simple or 1-odd-pinnately compound; petioles usually present. Simple leaves: blade narrowly elliptic, oblanceolate, or obovate, 1.2-7.5 cm. Compound leaves: rachis, when present, with or without swollen articulations; leaflet blades lanceolate to orbiculate, margins entire, toothed, spinose, or spinose-lobed; venation pinnate or leaflets 3-6-veined from base. Inflorescences terminal, usually racemes, rarely umbels or flowers solitary. Flowers 3-merous, 3-8 mm; bracteoles caducous, 3, scalelike; sepals falling immediately after anthesis, 6, yellow; petals 6, yellow, nectariferous; stamens 6; anthers dehiscing by valves; pollen exine punctate; ovary symmetrically club-shaped; placentation subbasal; style central. Fruits berries, spheric to cylindric-ovoid or ellipsoid, usually juicy, sometimes dry, at maturity. Seeds 1-10, tan to red-brown or black; aril absent. x = 14.
Shrubs, evergreen or deciduous. Branches glabrous or tomentose, spinose or not; spines simple or usually 3-5-fid. Leaves on short shoots, simple, alternate, usually petiolate. Inflorescences solitary or fascicled flowers, racemes, umbels, or panicles. Flowers 3-merous; bracteoles usually 3, caducous, scalelike. Sepals 6, rarely 3 or 9, yellow. Petals 6, yellow, bases nectariferous. Stamens opposite petals; anthers dehiscing by valves; pollen grains subspheroidal, exine reticulate. Ovary symmetrically club-shaped; ovules 1-12, rarely to 15, subbasal; styles very short. Fruit a berry, usually red, dark red, or black, globose, ellipsoid, oblong, ovoid, or obovoid. Seeds 1-10, tan to red-brown or black; aril absent. 2n = 14.
Small, often profusely branched shrubs, occasionally armed with 1- to many- pronged barbs. Leaves simple, often crowded toward the apex of spur branches, membranaceous to coriaceous, deciduous or evergreen, sessile or with a short alate petiole, entire, revolute, or spinose-serrulate, subenervate or with obvious open or reticulate venation, often pruinose and papillose below. Flowers usually yellowish, subglobose, subsessile to long-pedicellate, usually 1- or 2-bracteolate, solitary, fascicled, umbellate, racemose or paniculate, the inflorescence often pedunculate, bracteate; sepals in 2-3 whorls of 3, the outer usually shorter and narrower, the inner usually obtuse, oblong to orbicular, as long as or longer than the petals, eglandular; petals usually in 2 whorls of 3, emarginate or rounded, often un- guiculate, usually with a basal pair of glands; stamens hypogynous, antepetalous, the anthers bilocular, valvate, the filaments occasionally subapically dentate, apically truncate or apiculate; ovary 1- to 15-ovulate, the stigma capitate, sessile or provided with a prominent style. Berries ellipsoid to globose, red, purple or black, often pruinose, juicy or rather dry, 1- to few-seeded, the seeds yellowish or cyanic.
"Sep 6, biseriate, petaloid, subtended by 2 or 3 small bracts; pet 6, biseriate, usually smaller than the sep and each with 2 basal glands; stamens 6; ovary with 1–few ovules; fr a berry; spiny shrubs; primary lvs of the shoot modified into simple or often trifid spines, bearing axillary fascicles of small foliage lvs; fls yellow, in racemes, or contracted into umbel-like clusters, or solitary; fr in ours red. 600, widespread."
Evergreen or deciduous shrubs; branches with usually 3-partite spines and short axillary shoots bearing the leaves.
Sepals c. 9, petaloid, free, imbricate, the outer smaller than the inner.
Petals 6, free, imbricate, in two series, similar to the sepals but biglandular near the base.
Leaves apparently simple but (in our species at least) derived from 3-foliolate leaves, the side leaflets represented by vestigial leaflets and the terminal leaflet articulated at the base.
Flowers in panicles, racemes, fascicles or solitary, yellowish or orange.
Stamens 6, free; anthers opening by two valves.
Petals (5–)6, shorter or longer than the sepals, with 2 glands near the base
Sepals in (1–)2–3(–4) series or whorls, petaloid, usually with 1–2(–3) smaller bracteoles below
Flowers solitary or in fascicles, umbels, racemes or panicles
Ovary with 1–12(–15) basal ascending ovules
Stamens 6; filaments ± dentate at the apex, the connectives sometimes produced; anthers opening by valves
Evergreen or deciduous shrubs or subshrubs
Leaves in fascicles or whorls, sessile or shortly petiolate, simple or with 2 vestigial leaflets at the base; blade toothed or entire
Abrams, L. 1934. The mahonias of the Pacific states. Phytologia 1: 89-94. McCain, J. W. and J. F. Hennen. 1982. Is the taxonomy of Berberis and Mahonia (Berberidaceae) supported by their rust pathogens Cumminsiella santa sp. nov. and other Cumminsiella species (Uredinales)? Syst. Bot. 7: 48-59. Moran, R. V. 1982. Berberis claireae, a new species from Baja California; and why not Mahonia. Phytologia 52: 221-226.
|Barberry, Oregon-grape, berbéris, algerita [Mediaeval Latin barbaris ]|