Berberis L.
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 330. 1753. (1 May 1753)
  • Barberry, Oregon-grape, berbéris, algerita [Mediaeval Latin barbaris ]


Cite taxon page as 'WFO (2020): Berberis L. Published on the Internet;http://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-4000004457. Accessed on: 18 Feb 2020'

General Information

Shrubs or subshrubs , evergreen or deciduous, 0.1-4.5(-8) m, glabrous or with tomentose stems. Rhizomes present or absent, short or long, not nodose. Stems branched or unbranched, monomorphic or dimorphic, i.e., all elongate or with elongate primary stems and short axillary spur shoots. Leaves alternate, sometimes leaves of elongate shoots reduced to spines and foliage leaves borne only on short shoots; foliage leaves simple or 1-odd-pinnately compound; petioles usually present. Simple leaves: blade narrowly elliptic, oblanceolate, or obovate, 1.2-7.5 cm. Compound leaves: rachis, when present, with or without swollen articulations; leaflet blades lanceolate to orbiculate, margins entire, toothed, spinose, or spinose-lobed; venation pinnate or leaflets 3-6-veined from base. Inflorescences terminal, usually racemes, rarely umbels or flowers solitary. Flowers 3-merous, 3-8 mm; bracteoles caducous, 3, scalelike; sepals falling immediately after anthesis, 6, yellow; petals 6, yellow, nectariferous; stamens 6; anthers dehiscing by valves; pollen exine punctate; ovary symmetrically club-shaped; placentation subbasal; style central. Fruits berries, spheric to cylindric-ovoid or ellipsoid, usually juicy, sometimes dry, at maturity. Seeds 1-10, tan to red-brown or black; aril absent. x = 14.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Shrubs, evergreen or deciduous. Branches glabrous or tomentose, spinose or not; spines simple or usually 3-5-fid. Leaves on short shoots, simple, alternate, usually petiolate. Inflorescences solitary or fascicled flowers, racemes, umbels, or panicles. Flowers 3-merous; bracteoles usually 3, caducous, scalelike. Sepals 6, rarely 3 or 9, yellow. Petals 6, yellow, bases nectariferous. Stamens opposite petals; anthers dehiscing by valves; pollen grains subspheroidal, exine reticulate. Ovary symmetrically club-shaped; ovules 1-12, rarely to 15, subbasal; styles very short. Fruit a berry, usually red, dark red, or black, globose, ellipsoid, oblong, ovoid, or obovoid. Seeds 1-10, tan to red-brown or black; aril absent. 2n = 14.

  • Provided by: [D].Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 9
    • ]. 

    Small, often profusely branched shrubs, occasionally armed with 1- to many- pronged barbs. Leaves simple, often crowded toward the apex of spur branches, membranaceous to coriaceous, deciduous or evergreen, sessile or with a short alate petiole, entire, revolute, or spinose-serrulate, subenervate or with obvious open or reticulate venation, often pruinose and papillose below. Flowers usually yellowish, subglobose, subsessile to long-pedicellate, usually 1- or 2-bracteolate, solitary, fascicled, umbellate, racemose or paniculate, the inflorescence often pedunculate, bracteate; sepals in 2-3 whorls of 3, the outer usually shorter and narrower, the inner usually obtuse, oblong to orbicular, as long as or longer than the petals, eglandular; petals usually in 2 whorls of 3, emarginate or rounded, often un- guiculate, usually with a basal pair of glands; stamens hypogynous, antepetalous, the anthers bilocular, valvate, the filaments occasionally subapically dentate, apically truncate or apiculate; ovary 1- to 15-ovulate, the stigma capitate, sessile or provided with a prominent style. Berries ellipsoid to globose, red, purple or black, often pruinose, juicy or rather dry, 1- to few-seeded, the seeds yellowish or cyanic.

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • 8
    • ]. 

    "Sep 6, biseriate, petaloid, subtended by 2 or 3 small bracts; pet 6, biseriate, usually smaller than the sep and each with 2 basal glands; stamens 6; ovary with 1–few ovules; fr a berry; spiny shrubs; primary lvs of the shoot modified into simple or often trifid spines, bearing axillary fascicles of small foliage lvs; fls yellow, in racemes, or contracted into umbel-like clusters, or solitary; fr in ours red. 600, widespread."

  • Provided by: [E].New York Botanical Garden
    • Source: [
    • 11
    • ]. 

    Morphology

    Evergreen or deciduous shrubs; branches with usually 3-partite spines and short axillary shoots bearing the leaves.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Stipules absent.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Sepals c. 9, petaloid, free, imbricate, the outer smaller than the inner.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Petals 6, free, imbricate, in two series, similar to the sepals but biglandular near the base.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Leaves apparently simple but (in our species at least) derived from 3-foliolate leaves, the side leaflets represented by vestigial leaflets and the terminal leaflet articulated at the base.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Flowers in panicles, racemes, fascicles or solitary, yellowish or orange.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Stamens 6, free; anthers opening by two valves.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Ovules few, basal, erect.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Fruit a berry.

  • Provided by: [C].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    • Source: [
    • 5
    • ]. 

    Petals (5–)6, shorter or longer than the sepals, with 2 glands near the base

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Sepals in (1–)2–3(–4) series or whorls, petaloid, usually with 1–2(–3) smaller bracteoles below

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Flowers solitary or in fascicles, umbels, racemes or panicles

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Fruit a berry.

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Ovary with 1–12(–15) basal ascending ovules

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Stamens 6; filaments ± dentate at the apex, the connectives sometimes produced; anthers opening by valves

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Evergreen or deciduous shrubs or subshrubs

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Leaves in fascicles or whorls, sessile or shortly petiolate, simple or with 2 vestigial leaflets at the base; blade toothed or entire

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Branches usually with simple or compound spines, which subtend short shoots bearing the leaves and flowers

  • Provided by: [F].Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    • Source: [
    • 6
    • ]. 

    Habit

    shrubs

  • Provided by: [G].Flora de Panama
    • Source: [
    • 10
    • 8
    • ]. 

    Literature

    SELECTED REFERENCES

    Abrams, L. 1934. The mahonias of the Pacific states. Phytologia 1: 89-94. McCain, J. W. and J. F. Hennen. 1982. Is the taxonomy of Berberis and Mahonia (Berberidaceae) supported by their rust pathogens Cumminsiella santa sp. nov. and other Cumminsiella species (Uredinales)? Syst. Bot. 7: 48-59. Moran, R. V. 1982. Berberis claireae, a new species from Baja California; and why not Mahonia. Phytologia 52: 221-226.

  • Provided by: [H].Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    • Source: [
    • 7
    • ]. 

    Included Species

    Other Local Names

    NameLanguageCountry
    Barberry, Oregon-grape, berbéris, algerita [Mediaeval Latin barbaris ]

     Information From

    Berberidaceae
    World Flora Online Data. 2017.
    • A CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).
    MBG Floras Images
    http://www.tropicos.org/ImageSearch.aspx
    Flora images. Missouri Botanical Garden. Accessed on Jun. 2018.
    • B Missouri Botanical Garden
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FZ
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • C
    Flora Of CHina @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
    'Flora of China @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • D Missouri Botanical Garden
    New York Botanical Garden
    Descriptions of plants should be attributed to the full citation for each individual article, chapter or book that is the source for each record, which should include the authors of original publication.
    • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    Plants Of the World Online Portal - FTEA
    https://www.kew.org/science/who-we-are-and-what-we-do/strategic-outputs-2020/plants-of-the-world-online
    http://www.plantsoftheworldonline.org/terms-and-conditions
    • F
    Flora de Panama
    http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PAC
    Robert E. Woodson, Jr. and Robert W. Schery Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Vol. 67, No. 4 (1980), pp. ii-xxxiii
    • G Missouri Botanical Garden
    Flora of North America @ efloras.org
    http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1
    'Flora of North America @ eFloras (2008). Published on the Internet http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1 [accessed August 2016]' Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.
    • H Flora of North America Association
    World Flora Online consortium
    http://www.worldfloraonline.org/organisation/WFO
    World Flora Online Data. 2018.
    • I CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0).